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Open AccessArticle

A Hierarchical Modeling and Analysis Framework for Availability and Security Quantification of IoT Infrastructures

1
Office of Research, University-Industry Cooperation Foundation, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
2
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
3
School of Software, College of Computer Science, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2020, 9(1), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9010155
Received: 30 November 2019 / Revised: 29 December 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2020 / Published: 14 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cloud Computing and Applications)
Modeling a complete Internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure is crucial to assess its availability and security characteristics. However, modern IoT infrastructures often consist of a complex and heterogeneous architecture and thus taking into account both architecture and operative details of the IoT infrastructure in a monolithic model is a challenge for system practitioners and developers. In that regard, we propose a hierarchical modeling framework for the availability and security quantification of IoT infrastructures in this paper. The modeling methodology is based on a hierarchical model of three levels including (i) reliability block diagram (RBD) at the top level to capture the overall architecture of the IoT infrastructure, (ii) fault tree (FT) at the middle level to elaborate system architectures of the member systems in the IoT infrastructure, and (iii) continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) at the bottom level to capture detailed operative states and transitions of the bottom subsystems in the IoT infrastructure. We consider a specific case-study of IoT smart factory infrastructure to demonstrate the feasibility of the modeling framework. The IoT smart factory infrastructure is composed of integrated cloud, fog, and edge computing paradigms. A complete hierarchical model of RBD, FT, and CTMC is developed. A variety of availability and security measures are computed and analyzed. The investigation of the case-study’s analysis results shows that more frequent failures in cloud cause more severe decreases of overall availability, while faster recovery of edge enhances the availability of the IoT smart factory infrastructure. On the other hand, the analysis results of the case-study also reveal that cloud servers’ virtual machine monitor (VMM) and virtual machine (VM), and fog server’s operating system (OS) are the most vulnerable components to cyber-security attack intensity. The proposed modeling and analysis framework coupled with further investigation on the analysis results in this study help develop and operate the IoT infrastructure in order to gain the highest values of availability and security measures and to provide development guidelines in decision-making processes in practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: availability; security; hierarchical models; IoT Infrastructure; Cloud-Fog-Edge Continuum; smart factory availability; security; hierarchical models; IoT Infrastructure; Cloud-Fog-Edge Continuum; smart factory
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Nguyen, T.A.; Min, D.; Choi, E. A Hierarchical Modeling and Analysis Framework for Availability and Security Quantification of IoT Infrastructures. Electronics 2020, 9, 155.

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