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Open AccessArticle

Site-Specific Propagation Loss Prediction in 4.9 GHz Band Outdoor-to-Indoor Scenario

School of Environment and Society, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present address: Marvelous Inc., Tokyo 140-0002, Japan.
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1398; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121398
Received: 16 October 2019 / Revised: 14 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 23 November 2019
Owing to the widespread use of smartphones and various cloud services, user traffic in cellular networks is rapidly increasing. Especially, the traffic congestion is severe in urban areas, and effective service-cell planning is required in the area for efficient radio resource usage. Because many users are also inside high buildings in the urban area, the knowledge of propagation loss characteristics in the outdoor-to-indoor (O2I) scenario is indispensable for the purpose. The ray-tracing simulation has been widely used for service-cell planning, but it has a problem that the propagation loss tends to be underestimated in a typical O2I scenario in which the incident radio waves penetrate indoors through building windows. In this paper, we proposed the extension method of the ray-tracing simulation to solve the problem. In the proposed method, the additional loss factors such as the Fresnel zone shielding loss and the transmission loss by the equivalent dielectric plate were calculated for respective rays to eliminate the penetration loss prediction error. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we conducted radio propagation measurements in a high-building environment by using the developed unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based measurement system. The results showed that the penetration loss of direct and reflection rays was significantly underestimated in the ray-tracing simulation and the proposed method could correct the problem. The mean prediction error was improved from 7.0 dB to −0.5 dB, and the standard deviation was also improved from 8.2 dB to 5.3 dB. The results are expected to be utilized for actual service-cell planning in the urban environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: building entry loss; outdoor-to-indoor propagation; penetration loss; propagation loss measurement; ray-tracing simulation; super high frequency band propagation; unmanned aerial vehicle building entry loss; outdoor-to-indoor propagation; penetration loss; propagation loss measurement; ray-tracing simulation; super high frequency band propagation; unmanned aerial vehicle
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Saito, K.; Fan, Q.; Keerativoranan, N.; Takada, J.-I. Site-Specific Propagation Loss Prediction in 4.9 GHz Band Outdoor-to-Indoor Scenario. Electronics 2019, 8, 1398.

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