# A Survey on Application of Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access to Different Wireless Networks

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

- A comprehensive network model is provided for each of the considered NOMA-based CN, D2D communication, and WSN.
- In order to evaluate the performance of each considered NOMA-based network, outage probability expressions are presented.
- In addition, the sum-rate maximization problem is formulated for each type of NOMA-based network, which could serve as a good reference point for beginners and practitioners working on NOMA-based CN, D2D communication, or WSN.

## 2. Basic Concepts of NOMA

#### 2.1. The Principle of Superposition Coding

#### 2.2. Successive Interference Cancellation Scheme

#### 2.3. NOMA Scheme with SIC

## 3. Application of NOMA to Wireless Networks

#### 3.1. NOMA Applied to Cellular Networks

#### 3.1.1. NOMA in Single-Cell Single-Tier Cellular Networks

#### 3.1.2. NOMA in Single-Cell Multi-Tier Cellular Networks

- ${\epsilon}_{1}=\left(\right)open="\{"\; close="\}">\mathrm{Tpical}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{MU}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{is}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{NCU}$
- ${\epsilon}_{2}=\left(\right)open="\{"\; close="\}">\mathrm{Tpical}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{MU}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{is}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{CU}$
- ${\epsilon}_{3}=\left(\right)open="\{"\; close="\}">\mathrm{Outage}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{at}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{tpical}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{MU}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{when}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{it}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{is}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{NCU}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{in}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{SCMT}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{CN}$
- ${\epsilon}_{4}=\left(\right)open="\{"\; close="\}">\mathrm{Outage}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{at}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{tpical}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{MU}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{when}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{it}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{is}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{CU}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{in}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{SCMT}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{CN}$

#### 3.1.3. NOMA in Multi-Cell Single-Tier Cellular Network

#### 3.1.4. NOMA in Multi-Cell Multi-Tier Cellular Networks

- ${\epsilon}_{5}=\left(\right)open="\{"\; close="\}">\mathrm{Outage}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{at}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{tpical}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{MU}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{when}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{it}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{is}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{NCU}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{in}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{MCMT}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{CN}$
- ${\epsilon}_{6}=\left(\right)open="\{"\; close="\}">\mathrm{Outage}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{at}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{tpical}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{MU}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{when}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{it}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{is}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{CU}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{in}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{MCMT}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{CN}$

#### 3.2. NOMA Applied to Device-To-Device Communications

#### 3.2.1. NOMA-Based Group D2D Communications

#### 3.2.2. Outage in NOMA-Based Group D2D Network

#### 3.2.3. Sum-Rate Maximization Problem in NOMA-Based GD2D Networks

#### 3.3. NOMA Applied to Wireless Sensor Networks

#### 3.3.1. NOMA-Based WSNs

#### 3.3.2. Outage in NOMA-Based WSNs

#### 3.3.3. Sum-Rate Maximization Problem in NOMA-Based WSNs

## 4. Research Challenges and Future Trends

#### 4.1. Alternate Receiver for NOMA

#### 4.2. Hybrid Multiple Access

#### 4.3. Consideration of Imperfect CSI

#### 4.4. NOMA-Based Data Offloading in 5G Networks

#### 4.5. NOMA-Aided Full Duplex Networks

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Anwar, A.; Seet, B.-C.; Hasan, M.A.; Li, X.J.
A Survey on Application of Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access to Different Wireless Networks. *Electronics* **2019**, *8*, 1355.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8111355

**AMA Style**

Anwar A, Seet B-C, Hasan MA, Li XJ.
A Survey on Application of Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access to Different Wireless Networks. *Electronics*. 2019; 8(11):1355.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8111355

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Anwar, Asim, Boon-Chong Seet, Muhammad Amish Hasan, and Xue Jun Li.
2019. "A Survey on Application of Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access to Different Wireless Networks" *Electronics* 8, no. 11: 1355.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8111355