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Real-Time Ventricular Fibrillation Detection Using an Embedded Microcontroller in a Pervasive Environment

1
College of Engineering, Youngsan University, 288, Junam-ro, Yangsan-si 50510, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea
2
The Tilbury Research Group, College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
3
College of Information Sciences and Technology, The Pennsylvania State University, E327 Westgate Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current Address: Department of Computer Science, Kent State University, 241 Mathematics and Computer Science Building, Kent, OH 44242-0001, USA.
Electronics 2018, 7(6), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7060088
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 26 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 3 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Real-Time Embedded Systems)
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Abstract

Many healthcare problems are life threatening and need real-time detection to improve patient safety. Heart attack or ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a common problem worldwide. Most previous research on VF detection has used ECG devices to capture data and sent to other higher performance units for processing and has relied on domain experts and/or sophisticated algorithms for detection. In this case, it delayed the response time and consumed much more energy of the ECG module. In this study, we propose a prototype that an embedded microcontroller where an ECG sensor is used to capture, filter and process data, run VF detection algorithms, and only transmit the detected event to the smartphone for alert and call for services. We discuss how to adapt a common filtering and scale process and five light-weighted algorithms from open literature to realize the idea. We also develop an integrated prototype, which emulates the VF process from existing data sets, to evaluate the detection capability of the framework and algorithms. Our results show that (1) TD outperforms the other four algorithms considered with sensitivity reaching 96.56% and specificity reaching 81.53% in the MIT-BIH dataset. Our evaluations confirm that with some adaptation the conventional filtering process and detection algorithms can be efficiently deployed in a microcontroller with good detection accuracy while saving battery power, shortening response time, and conserving the network bandwidth. View Full-Text
Keywords: real-time detection; wearable ECG device; energy consumption; ventricular fibrillation; VF detection algorithms real-time detection; wearable ECG device; energy consumption; ventricular fibrillation; VF detection algorithms
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kwon, S.; Kim, J.; Chu, C.-H. Real-Time Ventricular Fibrillation Detection Using an Embedded Microcontroller in a Pervasive Environment. Electronics 2018, 7, 88.

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