Zero Standby Solutions with Optical Energy Harvesting from a Laser Pointer
1. Introduction and Background
1.1. Zero Standby Solutions
1.2. Optical Wake-Up Signal
1.3. Visible Laser Harvesting for Zero Standby
- The range is fairly limited due to the wide LED angle.
- Transmission at long range may require precise aiming, which is difficult with invisible IR transmission.
- Wide-beam transmission may unintentionally wake adjacent devices that expect a similar IR wake-up signal.
- Designs that require high-power transmission involve eye-safety concerns.
- A laser pointer may be more difficult to aim for people with shaky hands. This shortcoming can be mitigated by increasing the area of the photodiode array as discussed in Appendix A, using a focusing lens at the receiver, or slightly increasing the laser’s beam width.
- Lasers incur even more stringent eye hazards than IR LEDs. As such, this work strictly limits its scope to class 3a visible laser pointers (<5 mW).
- The design achieves zero standby consumption and harvests an external energy input to generate a wake-up signal.
- The design is constructed with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts and does not require a custom integrated circuit.
- The wake-up signal can be delivered with a common 5 mW class 3a laser pointer.
- The design is applicable in power supplies at standard voltages such as 120 V AC or 48 V DC. This requires the design to be able to drive the gate of a high-voltage sleep transistor.
- The wake-up signal can be generated within milliseconds of photodiode excitation.
2. Photodiode Model and Characterization
2.1. DC Characterization of a Photodiode
2.2. AC Characterization of a Photodiode
3. Laser-Based Wake-Up Circuit Solutions
3.1. Solution with a Cascoded Header Switch
3.2. Solution with a Dickson Charge Pump
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Prototypes and Results
4.2. Discussion of Laser-Based Standby Methods
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Array of Photodiodes
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|Solar Panels||This Work|
|Optical Sensing and Communication|
|Series Resistance||680 Ω|
|Shunt (Parallel) Resistance||5 G|
|Maximum Junction Capacitance||72 pF|
|Maximum Diffusion Capacitance||7.3 nF|
|Si3460DV||N||20 V||0.45 V||M1|
|RYC002N05||N||50 V||0.8 V||M2|
|SSM3J351R||P||60 V||2.0 V||M3|
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Gerber, D.L.; Meier, A.; Hosbach, R.; Liou, R. Zero Standby Solutions with Optical Energy Harvesting from a Laser Pointer. Electronics 2018, 7, 292. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7110292
Gerber DL, Meier A, Hosbach R, Liou R. Zero Standby Solutions with Optical Energy Harvesting from a Laser Pointer. Electronics. 2018; 7(11):292. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7110292Chicago/Turabian Style
Gerber, Daniel L., Alan Meier, Robert Hosbach, and Richard Liou. 2018. "Zero Standby Solutions with Optical Energy Harvesting from a Laser Pointer" Electronics 7, no. 11: 292. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7110292