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Article

Utilization of Explainable Machine Learning Algorithms for Determination of Important Features in ‘Suncrest’ Peach Maturity Prediction

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Department of Informatics, University of Rijeka, Radmile Matejčić 2, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
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Faculty of Agriculture, Unit of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Department of Pomology, University of Zagreb, Svetošimunska c. 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Amir Mosavi
Electronics 2021, 10(24), 3115; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10243115
Received: 29 October 2021 / Revised: 10 December 2021 / Accepted: 12 December 2021 / Published: 14 December 2021
Peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) are a popular fruit in Europe and Croatia. Maturity at harvest has a crucial influence on peach fruit quality, storage life, and consequently consumer acceptance. The main goal of this study is to develop a machine learning model that will detect the most important features for predicting peach maturity by first training models and then using the importance ratings of these models to detect nonlinear (and linear) relationships. Thus, the most important peach features at a given stage of its ripening could be revealed. To date, this method has not been used for this purpose, and at the same time, it has the potential to be applied to other similar peach varieties. A total of 33 fruit features are measured on the harvested peaches, and three imbalanced datasets are created using firmness thresholds of 1.84, 3.57, and 4.59 kg·cm−2. These datasets are balanced using the SMOTE and ROSE techniques, and the Random Forest machine learning model is trained on them. Permutation Feature Importance (PFI), Variable Importance (VI), and LIME interpretability methods are used to detect variables that most influence predictions in the given machine learning models. PFI shows that the and a* ground color parameters, COL ground color index, SSC/TA, and TA inner quality parameters are among the top ten most contributing variables in all three models. Meanwhile, VI shows that this is the case for the a* ground color parameter, COL and CCL ground color indexes, and the SSC/TA inner quality parameter. The fruit flesh ratio is highly positioned (among the top three according to PFI) in two models, but it is not even among the top ten in the third. View Full-Text
Keywords: machine learning; imbalanced datasets; peach maturity; variable importance; interpretable machine learning; random forest; ground color machine learning; imbalanced datasets; peach maturity; variable importance; interpretable machine learning; random forest; ground color
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ljubobratović, D.; Vuković, M.; Brkić Bakarić, M.; Jemrić, T.; Matetić, M. Utilization of Explainable Machine Learning Algorithms for Determination of Important Features in ‘Suncrest’ Peach Maturity Prediction. Electronics 2021, 10, 3115. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10243115

AMA Style

Ljubobratović D, Vuković M, Brkić Bakarić M, Jemrić T, Matetić M. Utilization of Explainable Machine Learning Algorithms for Determination of Important Features in ‘Suncrest’ Peach Maturity Prediction. Electronics. 2021; 10(24):3115. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10243115

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ljubobratović, Dejan, Marko Vuković, Marija Brkić Bakarić, Tomislav Jemrić, and Maja Matetić. 2021. "Utilization of Explainable Machine Learning Algorithms for Determination of Important Features in ‘Suncrest’ Peach Maturity Prediction" Electronics 10, no. 24: 3115. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10243115

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