Urban Food Waste: A Framework to Analyse Policies and Initiatives
2. Materials and Methods
3.1. Assessing Food Waste Policies: The Main Categorisations and Themes
3.2. Investigating Leading Practices in Urban Food Waste Policies
3.3. Framework to Analyse Urban Food Waste Policies
- Food donations: enabled through voluntary agreements signed between public or private actors and third parties (e.g., NGOs, charities, local organisations);
- Education: wide range of awareness raising initiatives addressing and involving citizens, charities, NGOs, as well as private actors (e.g., retailers, restaurants) and public ones (e.g., municipalities, schools, hospitals). They aim to raise awareness about food waste, but also entail capacity building, training, activities in the schools, etc.
- Promoting short supply chains: initiatives and projects aimed at strengthening urban-rural linkages, to better connect local (e.g., peri-urban) producers with urban food consumers for instance by investing in food markets or farmers’ markets.
- Circular economy: broad range of initiatives aimed at transforming food waste into new products (e.g., bio-fertilizers, animal feeding and clean energy by public or private waste management companies).
- Digital tools: initiatives aimed at tackling food waste by harnessing the potential of digital tools (e.g., apps, platforms, websites, etc.)
- Fiscal incentives: initiatives aimed at incentivising a broad range of actors to reduce food waste for instance by cutting taxes for those private actors donating surplus food;
- Employment: initiatives aimed at tackling food waste by employing citizens usually coming from marginalised groups (e.g., long-term unemployed).
- Additionally, tackling food waste can be a key component of wider initiatives based on integrated management of the urban challenges and that promote the collaboration and coordination of the urban ecosystem.
3.4. Exploring the Multiple Nexus of Urban Food Waste Policies
- Via educational programmes and campaigns, i.e., by sharing information, in order to create awareness about food waste. In these cases, schools usually play a key role as educators, and often the students (i.e., the people who receive education on food waste) then contribute to dissemination activities (e.g., other hospitals in Bruges);
- Through food donations, when information on the available food supply (i.e., potential food waste) is exchanged between food suppliers (i.e., surplus of food, such as in food markets or supermarkets) and donors to prevent food waste;
- Through digital tools that can improve the information exchanged to raise awareness and prevent food waste, for example, customers can access information about lower-priced food that is close to expiry in a specific supermarket; and
- To promote circular economy initiatives, awareness-raising campaigns on the correct disposal of non-reusable food waste among citizens while informing them about how they can contribute to optimising the production of biogas that it is in turn reused in the city.
- Allow and define circular economy schemes. Food waste is used to create clean energy, biogas or biofuels for public transport (e.g., Linkoping and Malmo) or compost, which is used as an input in other production processes (e.g., peri-urban agriculture). The flows of food waste and derived products are agreed/activated through voluntary agreement and then formally regulated.
- Promote shorter food supply chains. The Municipality supports the food-related urban ecosystem through plans or strategies aimed at fostering cooperation among urban actors (e.g., caterers, hoteliers) and local farmers in order to create an efficient network/chain and promote an expansion of demand for local food from small-scale productions by citizens and institutions and to influence the food supply criteria.
- Support wider educational programmes. The City launches a broad specific plan or strategy with several goals, including the need to raise food waste awareness among citizens.
- Food donations. Food is donated to avoid waste (valorisation of food waste) thanks to voluntary agreements between actors;
- Circular economy mechanisms. The city signs an agreement with NGOs to use (potential) food waste as a mean to enhance urban production of food (e.g., compost used in urban gardens), which is then consumed (e.g., in public canteens); and
- Educational programmes. Local organisations sign an agreement with local authorities to raise awareness among citizens on food waste via training and campaigns.
3.5. Aligning Urban Food Waste Policies with the Relevant SDGs
Conflicts of Interest
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|Type of Policies and Interventions||Aims|
|Information Based||Raising awareness among several urban actors of the food supply chain.|
|Market Based||Reducing urban food waste through market-based instruments, including fiscal incentives and tax reductions.|
|Regulatory||Tackling food waste by means of a wide range of activities in which cities are central, such as school meals reforms, legislation to facilitate food donations or easy food safety standards, but also wide strategies, plans or regulatory documents launched at city or regional level to address food governance.|
|Voluntary Agreements||Reducing urban food waste and raising awareness through agreements signed among a wide range of actors including national and local governments, private companies, charities, NGOs, food companies. These agreements may have different levels of formality and institutionalisation, with some cities merely playing the role of facilitators. These agreements enable collaborative initiatives involving exchanges of food and/or food waste.|
|Food Sharing||Enabling food sharing operated by profit organisations (e.g., distributors, retailers, restaurants), non-profit ones and even private citizens through food donations and sharing of food through digital technologies.|
|Social Protection||Reducing food waste by empowering vulnerable citizen groups (e.g., the elderly, poorer households, long-term unemployed, migrants), through job creation as well as cultural integration measures. These policies include projects that are explicitly targeting specific groups (e.g., people in need) of the population. Therefore, they may include food donations where marginalised groups (i.e., people in need) are explicitly identified as the main beneficiaries.|
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Fattibene, D.; Recanati, F.; Dembska, K.; Antonelli, M. Urban Food Waste: A Framework to Analyse Policies and Initiatives. Resources 2020, 9, 99. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090099
Fattibene D, Recanati F, Dembska K, Antonelli M. Urban Food Waste: A Framework to Analyse Policies and Initiatives. Resources. 2020; 9(9):99. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090099Chicago/Turabian Style
Fattibene, Daniele, Francesca Recanati, Katarzyna Dembska, and Marta Antonelli. 2020. "Urban Food Waste: A Framework to Analyse Policies and Initiatives" Resources 9, no. 9: 99. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090099