Creating Social Handprints: Method and Case Study in the Electronic Computer Manufacturing Industry
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Social LCA, SO-LCA and SHDB
2.2. Goal and Scope
2.3. Life Cycle Inventory
2.3.1. Company System Model Data
2.3.2. Social Risks Information
- A trade or supply chain model, such as a global input/output model (we used GTAP V7 here);
- A worker hours model;
- Data on social risks and opportunities;
- An impact assessment method (social hotspots index).
2.4. Impact Assessment
- The total inputs and outputs for a geographical given area over a given reference year (e.g., the impact of the US economy last year);
- The total inputs and outputs for a geographical given area over a given reference year on a per capita basis (e.g., the impact of an American last year).
- A normalized risk > 1 means a greater than average risk per dollar.
- A normalized risk < 1 means a lower than average risk per dollar.
3.1. The Social Footprint
3.2. Social Hotspots
3.4. Social Hotspots of Salient Risks
4. Discussion and Handprint Creation
4.1. Root Causes Identification
4.2. Social Handprint Calculation and Results
- Reduce US brand owner’s total supply chain social footprint significantly;
- Reduce the total supply chain child labor risk (footprint) by 45%;
- Reduce the total supply chain tox/haz risk (footprint) by 28%;
- Create a social handprint, by causing positive change both in the footprint of the brand owner and in the footprint of other companies.
4.3. From a Typical Company to a Specific One
- Modify the purchases amount and country trade share of the existing industry model;
- Become more ambitious and even more specific, i.e., start from internal expenditure data;
- Obtain the information of the next supply chain tier from suppliers.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Very High Risk||10|
|Result Type||Result Outcome|
|Overall Social Footprint|
|Overall Social Hotspots|
individual production activity/country which contributes most to the risk (overall, by impact category or subcategory)
|Salient Social Risks|
social impact subcategories that account for a greater share of the overall risk
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Benoit Norris, C.; Norris, G.A.; Azuero, L.; Pflueger, J. Creating Social Handprints: Method and Case Study in the Electronic Computer Manufacturing Industry. Resources 2019, 8, 176. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8040176
Benoit Norris C, Norris GA, Azuero L, Pflueger J. Creating Social Handprints: Method and Case Study in the Electronic Computer Manufacturing Industry. Resources. 2019; 8(4):176. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8040176Chicago/Turabian Style
Benoit Norris, Catherine, Gregory A. Norris, Lina Azuero, and John Pflueger. 2019. "Creating Social Handprints: Method and Case Study in the Electronic Computer Manufacturing Industry" Resources 8, no. 4: 176. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8040176