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Resources 2019, 8(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8020063

The Contribution of Energy Taxes to Climate Change Policy in the European Union (EU)

1
Department of Environmental Sciences, Vytautas Magnus University, LT-44404 Kaunas, Lithuania
2
Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian Economics, LT01113 Vilnius, Lithuania
3
Institute of Regional Development, Šiauliai University, LT-77156 Šiauliai, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 30 March 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 6 April 2019
PDF [941 KB, uploaded 6 April 2019]

Abstract

Energy taxes are one of the main market-based tools directed toward mitigating climate change in the European Union (EU). Therefore, the aim of this article was to analyze whether energy taxes really contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the successful implementation of climate change policy. Applying the Granger causality test on time series and using panel data analysis, the direct and indirect (via the reduction of fossil energy consumption (FEC) and energy intensity (EI), as well as the increase of renewable energy consumption (REN)) impacts of energy taxes on GHG emissions in EU countries were analyzed in the present study. The results showed that energy taxes did not Granger-cause fossil energy consumption, energy intensity, renewable energy consumption, and GHG emissions in almost all EU countries. Regarding the panel data analysis, the results showed that energy taxes did not, directly and indirectly, influence GHG emissions. Therefore, this paper shows that generally, energy tax policy in EU countries is ineffective. Thus, tax policy should be reformed and matched with an emissions trading system in seeking climate change mitigation.
Keywords: energy taxes; climate change policy; energy efficiency; renewable energy; tax reform energy taxes; climate change policy; energy efficiency; renewable energy; tax reform
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Liobikienė, G.; Butkus, M.; Matuzevičiūtė, K. The Contribution of Energy Taxes to Climate Change Policy in the European Union (EU). Resources 2019, 8, 63.

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