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Resources 2019, 8(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8010008

Benefit Analysis and Regulatory Actions for Imported Palm Kernel Shell as an Environment-Friendly Energy Source in Taiwan

Graduate Institute of Bioresources, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 912 Pingtung, Taiwan
Received: 3 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 1 January 2019
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Abstract

In response to the lack of locally natural sources and the environmental concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, using a wide variety of biomass residues as energy sources has attracted much attention in the past two decades. The purpose of the case study was to examine the energy use of imported palm kernel shell (PKS) in Taiwan, which has generated superheated steam for the end users in the industrial sector. In this work, characterizing the thermochemical properties of imported PKS (including proximate analysis, elemental analysis and calorific value) was first conducted by the standard test methods. Based on the statistics of imported PKS and the method developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the preliminary benefit analysis of PKS-to-energy was further addressed in the paper to verify its equivalent GHG emission mitigation. The results showed the annual benefit of equivalent GHG mitigation of about 78,647 metric tons (using annual imported PKS of 60,000 metric tons on an average). In addition, the economic benefit for purchasing PKS in the industrial boilers can gain the cost-down at approximately NT$60,000,000 (US$2,000,000) in comparison with that of fuel oil. Furthermore, the regulatory measures for upgrading PKS-to-energy and countermeasures for controlling air pollutant emissions from PKS-to-energy facilities were briefly summarized to create another circular economy. Finally, some technological recommendations have been addressed to upgrade the added values of imported PKS in Taiwan. View Full-Text
Keywords: palm kernel shell; biomass-to-energy; boiler; feed-in-tariff; benefit analysis; regulatory measure & countermeasure palm kernel shell; biomass-to-energy; boiler; feed-in-tariff; benefit analysis; regulatory measure & countermeasure
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Tsai, W.-T. Benefit Analysis and Regulatory Actions for Imported Palm Kernel Shell as an Environment-Friendly Energy Source in Taiwan. Resources 2019, 8, 8.

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