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Resources 2019, 8(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8010032

On the Spatial Dimension of the Circular Economy

1
Center for Industrial Ecology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
2
Department of Industrial Chemistry “Toso Montanari”, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, Bologna 40136, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
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Abstract

The concept of a “circular economy”, in which material in society is regarded as “a transient phase in anthropogenic resource utilization”, is a growing topic for discussion. The primary motivations for supporting a circular economy include a reduction of environmental impacts and conservation of natural resources. Australia is a vivid example of a country whose large metal extraction capacity is not balanced as it has neither an extensive product manufacturing capability nor a large domestic market. Consequently, Australia must rely on the global resource network to achieve circularity and carbon neutrality. This work illustrates this situation with quantitative material flow cycles for Australian aluminum, nickel, copper, zinc, and stainless steel, and comments on the implications of the results for Australia and for circular economy prospects more generally. View Full-Text
Keywords: copper; aluminum; zinc; nickel; stainless steel; sustainable resources copper; aluminum; zinc; nickel; stainless steel; sustainable resources
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Graedel, T.E.; Reck, B.K.; Ciacci, L.; Passarini, F. On the Spatial Dimension of the Circular Economy. Resources 2019, 8, 32.

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