The Impact of Pay-As-You-Throw Schemes on Municipal Solid Waste Management: The Exemplar Case of the County of Aschaffenburg, Germany
1.1. Fundamentals of Pay-As-You-Throw
- Per user identifier:
- Volume-based accounting
- Weight-based accounting
- Per bin identifier (individually or collectively assigned bins)
- Volume-based accounting (identification system)
- Weight-based accounting
- Pre-paid systems
- Pre-paid sack
- Tag, sticker, or token
1.2. The County of Aschaffenburg
1.3. PAYT as a Best Environmental Management Practice
- Collection rate of recyclable materials (%). This indicator is frequently reported as “recycling rate”, but, given the amount of rejects from existing sorting and recycling plants, the term recyclables collection rate is preferred to avoid its misinterpretation. PAYT schemes are designed to increase the amount of recovered recyclable materials from municipal solid waste, so their implementation should increase values for this indicator.
- Residual waste (kg·cap−1·yr−1). This is the amount of waste that the system user disposes in the residual waste bin. For practical recording reasons, this definition excludes the amount of waste rejected in recycling or sorting plants from the separately collected recyclable waste fraction(s) or illegally disposed waste.
2. Implementation of the System
3.1. Environmental Performance
- the use of a weighing system
- provision of an extensive infrastructure for the collection of recyclable waste streams (see Table 1)
- a high level of environmental awareness and active support from the citizens
3.2. Economic Implications
- costs for collecting the different waste fractions (e.g., residual waste, bio waste, and paper)
- costs for the treatment/disposal of residual waste (e.g., incineration) and the recycling/energy recovery of waste fractions, distinguishing between municipality-owned and third-party plants
- costs for the operation, closure, and management of legacy landfills (leachate treatment, landscaping, etc.)
- costs for staff and administration related to waste management
- miscellaneous costs
- by private waste management companies on behalf of the municipality
- by the municipality itself
- by municipalities providing services for another municipality
- selling electricity or/and heat from the incineration of refuse derived fuels, residual waste, and biogas from the anaerobic digestion of bio waste or from landfills
- selling biogas from anaerobic digestion
- selling separately collected or separated paper/cardboard
- selling separately collected packaging
- selling separately collected or separated scrap metal
- selling compost
- fees charged to businesses for waste collection and disposal
Conflicts of Interest
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|Waste Type||Collection System|
|Residual waste||Residual waste bin: collection rate every 14 days, with weighing and identification; bin sizes: 120, 240, 660, or 1100 L, available upon request and with a lock|
|Reloading station: direct delivery for a fee|
|Bio waste||Bio waste bin: collection rate every 14 days (every 7 days in the months of June, July, and August) with weighing and identification, bin sizes: 60 or 120 L|
|Garden waste/green cuttings||Household collection rounds twice per year in each municipality on advertised dates.|
|Delivery to municipal collection and shredding sites, or to the district recycling centre|
|Waste paper||Paper bin (blue bin), which has been introduced throughout the entire county, four-week collection; bin sizes: 240, or 1100 L|
|Collection by a non-profit association, infrequent in every municipality|
|30 collection centres (also known as “container parks” or “civic amenity sites”)|
|Sales packaging||Yellow recycling bags for light packaging: monthly collection|
|Metals: depot containers (180 locations)|
|Glass: depot containers for white, green, and brown glass (180 locations)|
|Bulky waste for disposal||Collection on call, written registration required, fee by weight|
|Reloading station: direct delivery for a fee|
|Bulky waste for recycling||Waste wood, scrap metal, and electrical appliances (white goods, refrigerators, and display units) are collected twice a year at the kerbside with fixed collection schedules.|
|Special waste (hazardous waste in small quantities)||Mobile collection, twice a year in each municipality (46 stopping points)|
|Year-round acceptance of small quantities in the district recycling yard|
|Collection centres||Waste metal, waste wood, flat glass, cans, hollow glass, waste paper, rubble, electrical appliances (IT and entertainment devices), non-ferrous metals, CDs, corks, used cooking oils, PU foam cans, and textiles|
|Waste Type||1995 (A)||2000 PAYT (B)||2000 BAU (C)||Absolute Change (B−A)||PAYT Effect (B−C)|
|Paper and cardboard||80.0||101.0||85.7||+21.0||+15.3|
|Steel & iron||21.0||20.0||20.7||−1.0||−0.7|
|Change in residual waste not accounted for by increase in major separated fractions *||−50.0||−36.5|
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Morlok, J.; Schoenberger, H.; Styles, D.; Galvez-Martos, J.-L.; Zeschmar-Lahl, B. The Impact of Pay-As-You-Throw Schemes on Municipal Solid Waste Management: The Exemplar Case of the County of Aschaffenburg, Germany. Resources 2017, 6, 8. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources6010008
Morlok J, Schoenberger H, Styles D, Galvez-Martos J-L, Zeschmar-Lahl B. The Impact of Pay-As-You-Throw Schemes on Municipal Solid Waste Management: The Exemplar Case of the County of Aschaffenburg, Germany. Resources. 2017; 6(1):8. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources6010008Chicago/Turabian Style
Morlok, Juergen, Harald Schoenberger, David Styles, Jose-Luis Galvez-Martos, and Barbara Zeschmar-Lahl. 2017. "The Impact of Pay-As-You-Throw Schemes on Municipal Solid Waste Management: The Exemplar Case of the County of Aschaffenburg, Germany" Resources 6, no. 1: 8. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources6010008