Next Article in Journal
Taking the Step towards a More Dynamic View on Raw Material Criticality: An Indicator Based Analysis for Germany and Japan
Next Article in Special Issue
A Critical Assessment of the Resource Depletion Potential of Current and Future Lithium-Ion Batteries
Previous Article in Journal
Allocating Group-Level Payments for Ecosystem Services: Experiences from a REDD+ Pilot in Tanzania
Previous Article in Special Issue
Marginal Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Electricity Generation in Portugal and Implications for Electric Vehicles
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Resources 2016, 5(4), 44;

Feasibility of Small Wind Turbines in Ontario: Integrating Power Curves with Wind Trends

Department of Geography, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
Department of Geography, Centre of Atmospheric Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EN, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Diego Iribarren
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Analysis of Energy Systems under Sustainability Aspects)
Full-Text   |   PDF [6688 KB, uploaded 7 December 2016]   |  


Micro-scale/small wind turbines, unlike larger utility-scale turbines, produce electricity at a rate of 300 W to 10 kW at their rated wind speed and are typically below 30 m in hub-height. These wind turbines have much more flexibility in their costs, maintenance and siting, owing to their size, and can provided wind energy in areas much less suited for direct supply to the grid system. In the future under climate change, the energy landscape will likely shift from the present centralized electricity generation and delivery system to a more distributed and locally-generated electricity and delivery system. In the new system configuration, the role of relatively small sustainable electricity generators like small wind turbines will likely become more prominent. However, the small wind industry has been substantially slow to progress in Ontario, Canada, and there is much debate over its viability in a growing energy dependent economy. This study seeks to demonstrate the performance of a small wind turbine, and speculate on its potential power output and trend over Ontario historically over the last 33 years using the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data. We assessed the efficiency of a Bergey Excel 1 kW wind turbine at the pre-established Kortright Centre for Conservation test site, located north of Toronto. Using a novel approach, the Bergey optimized power curve was incorporated with reanalysis data to establish power output across Ontario at three-hour resolution. Small turbine-based wind power around the Great Lakes and eastern James Bay increased during winter and fall, contributing up to 10% of the annual electricity demand in some regions in Ontario. We purport that increases in power output are driven by long-term reductions in sea and lake ice concentrations affecting atmospheric stability in surrounding regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: small wind turbines; NARR dataset; multi-year wind trends; wind turbine power curves; renewable energies small wind turbines; NARR dataset; multi-year wind trends; wind turbine power curves; renewable energies

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ashtine, M.; Bello, R.; Higuchi, K. Feasibility of Small Wind Turbines in Ontario: Integrating Power Curves with Wind Trends. Resources 2016, 5, 44.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Resources EISSN 2079-9276 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top