Next Article in Journal
Electronic Waste and Existing Processing Routes: A Canadian Perspective
Previous Article in Journal
Questioning the Status Quo: Can Stakeholder Participation Improve Implementation of Small-Scale Mining Laws in Ghana?
Open AccessReview

Drivers and Constraints of Critical Materials Recycling: The Case of Indium

Energy and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Benjamin C McLellan
Resources 2016, 5(4), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources5040034
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 24 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 2 November 2016
Raw material criticality studies are receiving increasing attention because an increasing number of elements of great economic importance, performing essential functions face high supply risks. Scarcity of key materials is a potential barrier to large-scale deployment of sustainable energy and clean-tech technologies as resorting to several critical materials. As physical scarcity and geopolitical issues may present a barrier to the supply of critical metals, recycling is regarded as a possible solution to substitute primary resources for securing the long-term supply of critical metals. In this paper, the main drivers and constraints for critical materials recycling are analyzed from literature, considering indium as a case study of critical materials. This literature review shows that waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) could be a future source of critical metals; however, the reduction of dissipation of critical materials should have much higher priority. It is put forward that more attention should be paid to sustainable management of critical materials, especially improved practices at the waste management stage. This calls for not only more efficient WEEE recycling technologies, but also revising priorities in recycling strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: critical materials; indium; recycling; WEEE; open loop; dissipative loss critical materials; indium; recycling; WEEE; open loop; dissipative loss
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ylä-Mella, J.; Pongrácz, E. Drivers and Constraints of Critical Materials Recycling: The Case of Indium. Resources 2016, 5, 34.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop