Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a low-power, non-von-Neumann, general-purpose paradigm for classical computing using transistor-free logic. Here, classical bits are encoded on the charge configuration of individual computing primitives known as “cells.” A cell is a system of quantum dots with a few mobile charges. Device switching occurs through quantum mechanical inter-dot charge tunneling, and devices are interconnected via the electrostatic field. QCA devices are implemented using arrays of QCA cells. A molecular implementation of QCA may support THz-scale clocking or better at room temperature. Molecular QCA may be clocked using an applied electric field, known as a clocking field. A time-varying clocking field may be established using an array of conductors. The clocking field determines the flow of data and calculations. Various arrangements of clocking conductors are laid out, and the resulting electric field is simulated. It is shown that that control of molecular QCA can enable feedback loops, memories, planar circuit crossings, and versatile circuit grids that support feedback and memory, as well as data flow in any of the ordinal grid directions. Logic, interconnect and memory now become indistinguishable, and the von Neumann bottleneck is avoided.
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