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Open AccessReview

Physical, Electrical, and Reliability Considerations for Copper BEOL Layout Design Rules

1
TowerJazz Corporation, Migdal Ha’Emek 10556, Israel
2
The Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel
J. Low Power Electron. Appl. 2018, 8(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jlpea8020020
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
The continuous scaling needed for better performance and higher density has introduced some new challenges to the back end of line (BEOL) in terms of layout and design. Reductions in metal line width, spacing, and thickness require major changes in both process and design environments. Advanced deep-submicron layout design rules (DRs) should now consider many new proximity effects and reliability concerns due to high electrical fields and currents, planarization-related coverage effects, etc. It is, therefore, necessary to redefine many of the common DRs. For example, space rules now have a complex definition, including both line width and parallel length. In addition, new rules have been introduced to represent the challenges of reliability such as stress-induced voids, time-dependent dielectric breakdowns of intermetal dielectrics, dependency on misalignment, sensitivity to double patterning, etc. This review describes a set of copper (Cu) BEOL layout design rules, as used in technologies featuring lengths ranging from 0.15 μm to 20 nm. The verification of layout rules and sensitivity issues related to them are presented. Reliability-related aspects of some rules, like space, width, and via density, are also discussed with additional design-for-manufacturing layout recommendations. View Full-Text
Keywords: back end of line; layout design rules; copper technology; inter-metal dielectric time-dependent dielectric breakdown (IMD-TDDB) back end of line; layout design rules; copper technology; inter-metal dielectric time-dependent dielectric breakdown (IMD-TDDB)
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Shauly, E.N. Physical, Electrical, and Reliability Considerations for Copper BEOL Layout Design Rules. J. Low Power Electron. Appl. 2018, 8, 20.

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