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Open AccessArticle

Regional Phenotypic Differences of the Opener Muscle in Procambarus clarkii: Sarcomere Length, Fiber Diameter, and Force Development

Department of Biology and Center of Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biology 2020, 9(6), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9060118
Received: 3 May 2020 / Revised: 18 May 2020 / Accepted: 20 May 2020 / Published: 5 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Physiology)
The opener muscle in the walking legs of the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) has three distinct phenotypic regions although innervated by only one excitatory motor neuron. These regions (distal, central, and proximal) have varied biochemistry and physiology, including synaptic structure, troponin-T levels, fiber diameter, input resistance, sarcomere length, and force generation. The force generated by the central fibers when the excitatory neuron was stimulated at 40 Hz was more than the force generated by the other regions. This increase in force was correlated with the central fibers having longer sarcomeres when measured in a relaxed claw. These data support the idea that the central fibers are tonic-like and that the proximal fibers are phasic-like. The addition of serotonin directly on the fibers was hypothesized to increase the force generated by the central fibers more than in the other regions, but this did not occur at 40-Hz stimulation. We hypothesized that the central distal fibers would generate the most force due to the arrangement on the apodeme. This study demonstrates how malleable the motor unit is with modulation and frequency of stimulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: invertebrate; neuromodulation; tonic verses phasic fibers; neuromuscular junction invertebrate; neuromodulation; tonic verses phasic fibers; neuromuscular junction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Holsinger, R.C.; Cooper, R.L. Regional Phenotypic Differences of the Opener Muscle in Procambarus clarkii: Sarcomere Length, Fiber Diameter, and Force Development. Biology 2020, 9, 118. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9060118

AMA Style

Holsinger RC, Cooper RL. Regional Phenotypic Differences of the Opener Muscle in Procambarus clarkii: Sarcomere Length, Fiber Diameter, and Force Development. Biology. 2020; 9(6):118. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9060118

Chicago/Turabian Style

Holsinger, Rachel C.; Cooper, Robin L. 2020. "Regional Phenotypic Differences of the Opener Muscle in Procambarus clarkii: Sarcomere Length, Fiber Diameter, and Force Development" Biology 9, no. 6: 118. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9060118

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