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Autophagy Inhibition Induces the Secretion of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) with Autocrine and Paracrine Effects on the Promotion of Malignancy in Breast Cancer

Assessing Autophagy in Archived Tissue or How to Capture Autophagic Flux from a Tissue Snapshot

TRANSAUTOPHAGY: European Network for Multidisciplinary Research and Translation of Autophagy Knowledge, COST Action CA15138, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
Institute of Pathology, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 31, CH-3008 Bern, Switzerland
Mitochondrial and Neuromuscular Diseases Laboratory, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital ‘12 de Octubre’ (‘imas12’), 28041 Madrid, Spain
Spanish Network for Biomedical Research in Rare Diseases (CIBERER), U723, Institute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
Institute of Biomedicine of Seville (IBiS), Hospital University “Virgen del Rocío”/CSIC/University of Seville, 41013 Seville, Spain
Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Seville, 41009 Seville, Spain
Spanish Network for Biomedical Research in Hepatic and Digestive Diseases (CIBERehd), Institute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
Department of Pharmacology, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Cancer Research at UCC, Western Gateway Building, University College Cork, T12 XF62 Cork, Ireland
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biology, Complutense University, and Instituto de Investigaciones Sanitarias San Carlos (IdISSC), 28040 Madrid, Spain
Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino Carlo Bo, 61029 Urbino, Italy
Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090, Austria
Tumor Immunotherapy and Microenvironment (TIME) Group, Department of Oncology—Luxembourg Institute of Health, 1526 Luxembourg City, Luxembourg
Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
ICVS/3B’s—PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães, Portugal
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Structural Biology, Jožef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Department of Tumor Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biology 2020, 9(3), 59;
Received: 2 March 2020 / Revised: 18 March 2020 / Accepted: 19 March 2020 / Published: 21 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy in Cancer)
Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation mechanism that is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis. In human disease, autophagy pathways are frequently deregulated and there is immense interest in targeting autophagy for therapeutic approaches. Accordingly, there is a need to determine autophagic activity in human tissues, an endeavor that is hampered by the fact that autophagy is characterized by the flux of substrates whereas histology informs only about amounts and localization of substrates and regulators at a single timepoint. Despite this challenging task, considerable progress in establishing markers of autophagy has been made in recent years. The importance of establishing clear-cut autophagy markers that can be used for tissue analysis cannot be underestimated. In this review, we attempt to summarize known techniques to quantify autophagy in human tissue and their drawbacks. Furthermore, we provide some recommendations that should be taken into consideration to improve the reliability and the interpretation of autophagy biomarkers in human tissue samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: autophagy; biomarkers; pathology; disease autophagy; biomarkers; pathology; disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Humbert, M.; Morán, M.; de la Cruz-Ojeda, P.; Muntané, J.; Wiedmer, T.; Apostolova, N.; McKenna, S.L.; Velasco, G.; Balduini, W.; Eckhart, L.; Janji, B.; Sampaio-Marques, B.; Ludovico, P.; Žerovnik, E.; Langer, R.; Perren, A.; Engedal, N.; Tschan, M.P. Assessing Autophagy in Archived Tissue or How to Capture Autophagic Flux from a Tissue Snapshot. Biology 2020, 9, 59.

AMA Style

Humbert M, Morán M, de la Cruz-Ojeda P, Muntané J, Wiedmer T, Apostolova N, McKenna SL, Velasco G, Balduini W, Eckhart L, Janji B, Sampaio-Marques B, Ludovico P, Žerovnik E, Langer R, Perren A, Engedal N, Tschan MP. Assessing Autophagy in Archived Tissue or How to Capture Autophagic Flux from a Tissue Snapshot. Biology. 2020; 9(3):59.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Humbert, Magali, María Morán, Patricia de la Cruz-Ojeda, Jordi Muntané, Tabea Wiedmer, Nadezda Apostolova, Sharon L. McKenna, Guillermo Velasco, Walter Balduini, Leopold Eckhart, Bassam Janji, Belém Sampaio-Marques, Paula Ludovico, Eva Žerovnik, Rupert Langer, Aurel Perren, Nikolai Engedal, and Mario P. Tschan 2020. "Assessing Autophagy in Archived Tissue or How to Capture Autophagic Flux from a Tissue Snapshot" Biology 9, no. 3: 59.

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