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The Human Respiratory System and its Microbiome at a Glimpse

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Ionian Department, Microbiology and Virology Laboratory, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy
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Department of Clinical Disciplines, University of Elbasan, Rruga Ismail Zyma, 3001 Elbasan, Albania
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Poison Center, OO. RR. University Hospital of Foggia, Viale Luigi Pinto 1, 71122 Foggia, Italy
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Department of Biosciences, Biotechnologies and Biopharmaceutics, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy
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Department of Precision Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Vico L. De Crecchio 7, 80138 Naples, Italy
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Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy
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ENT Service, Brindisi Local Health Agency, Via Dalmazia 3, 72100 Brindisi, Italy
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Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biology 2020, 9(10), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9100318
Received: 13 August 2020 / Revised: 24 September 2020 / Accepted: 25 September 2020 / Published: 1 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota and Immune System Crosstalk 2020)
New data in the current scientific literature show that the composition of the respiratory system microbiome differs in health and disease conditions and that the microbial community as a collective entity can contribute to the pathophysiological processes associated with chronic airway disease. The respiratory microbiome is less studied than that of other areas, but it is believed to contribute to the host’s local immune education and to the development of respiratory diseases, including allergies, asthma and others. In this review, was highlighted the current clinical microbiology knowledge about the microbiota and the various lung diseases relationships, previously only indirectly related to microbial pathogenesis, and the microbiota–pathogenesis relationship of lung infection, among the main causes of diseases, in order to prevent and help in a targeted treatment of various lung diseases.
The recent COVID-19 pandemic promoted efforts to better understand the organization of the respiratory microbiome and its evolution from birth to adulthood and how it interacts with external pathogens and the host immune system. This review aims to deepen understanding of the essential physiological functions of the resident microbiome of the respiratory system on human health and diseases. First, the general characteristics of the normal microbiota in the different anatomical sites of the airways have been reported in relation to some factors such as the effect of age, diet and others on its composition and stability. Second, we analyze in detail the functions and composition and the correct functionality of the microbiome in the light of current knowledge. Several studies suggest the importance of preserving the micro-ecosystem of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microbes of the respiratory system, and, more recently, its relationship with the intestinal microbiome, and how it also leads to the maintenance of human health, has become better understood. View Full-Text
Keywords: human microbiome; respiratory microbiome; clinical microbiology; immune modulation; dysbiosis; respiratory diseases; translational research; asthma; SARS-CoV-2 human microbiome; respiratory microbiome; clinical microbiology; immune modulation; dysbiosis; respiratory diseases; translational research; asthma; SARS-CoV-2
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MDPI and ACS Style

Santacroce, L.; Charitos, I.A.; Ballini, A.; Inchingolo, F.; Luperto, P.; De Nitto, E.; Topi, S. The Human Respiratory System and its Microbiome at a Glimpse. Biology 2020, 9, 318.

AMA Style

Santacroce L, Charitos IA, Ballini A, Inchingolo F, Luperto P, De Nitto E, Topi S. The Human Respiratory System and its Microbiome at a Glimpse. Biology. 2020; 9(10):318.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Santacroce, Luigi; Charitos, Ioannis A.; Ballini, Andrea; Inchingolo, Francesco; Luperto, Paolo; De Nitto, Emanuele; Topi, Skender. 2020. "The Human Respiratory System and its Microbiome at a Glimpse" Biology 9, no. 10: 318.

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