The Human Respiratory System and its Microbiome at a Glimpse
Ionian Department, Microbiology and Virology Laboratory, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy
Department of Clinical Disciplines, University of Elbasan, Rruga Ismail Zyma, 3001 Elbasan, Albania
Poison Center, OO. RR. University Hospital of Foggia, Viale Luigi Pinto 1, 71122 Foggia, Italy
Department of Biosciences, Biotechnologies and Biopharmaceutics, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy
Department of Precision Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Vico L. De Crecchio 7, 80138 Naples, Italy
Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy
ENT Service, Brindisi Local Health Agency, Via Dalmazia 3, 72100 Brindisi, Italy
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2020 / Revised: 24 September 2020 / Accepted: 25 September 2020 / Published: 1 October 2020
New data in the current scientific literature show that the composition of the respiratory system microbiome differs in health and disease conditions and that the microbial community as a collective entity can contribute to the pathophysiological processes associated with chronic airway disease. The respiratory microbiome is less studied than that of other areas, but it is believed to contribute to the host’s local immune education and to the development of respiratory diseases, including allergies, asthma and others. In this review, was highlighted the current clinical microbiology knowledge about the microbiota and the various lung diseases relationships, previously only indirectly related to microbial pathogenesis, and the microbiota–pathogenesis relationship of lung infection, among the main causes of diseases, in order to prevent and help in a targeted treatment of various lung diseases.