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Article

Ganoderma Lucidum from Red Mushroom Attenuates Formaldehyde-Induced Liver Damage in Experimental Male Rat Model

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Department of Natural Sciences, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Precious Cornerstone University, Ibadan P.M.B 234, Nigeria
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Department of Biochemistry, Adekunle Ajasin University, Ondo State P.M.B 001, Nigeria
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Department of Biochemistry, Osun State University, Osogbo P.M.B 4494, Nigeria
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Department of Biochemistry, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State P.M.B 1023, Nigeria
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Department of Physiology, Osun State University, Osogbo P.M.B 4494, Nigeria
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Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-13, Inada-cho, Obihiro 080-8555, Japan
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Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt
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Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicines, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22511, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biology 2020, 9(10), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9100313
Received: 29 July 2020 / Revised: 22 September 2020 / Accepted: 22 September 2020 / Published: 27 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity of Medicinal Plants and Extracts)
Formaldehyde exposure is common due to inhalation and its presence in some food additives. Upon exposure to formaldehyde via any route, it is majorly metabolized by the liver. However, this metabolism impacts negatively on the liver, and in certain concentrations can result in liver damage referred to as hepatotoxicity. This toxicity is evident by a decrease in antioxidant markers as well as an increase in liver function enzymes, inflammatory markers as well as lipid profile in Wistar rats as shown by this study. To combat the deleterious effect of formaldehyde exposure, this study has shown that Ganoderma lucidum from red mushroom presents an excellent natural resource by ameliorating the aforementioned liver toxicity markers. This study should serve as a deterrent for those in the practice of using formaldehyde as food additives. Environment inspectors and governments should ensure that formaldehyde is kept below its toxicity threshold in work environments. However, in cases where hepatotoxicity has ensued or is suspected, Ganoderma lucidum could serve as a way to combat this toxicity but should be used under appropriate medical expert supervision.
The majority of liver-related illnesses are caused by occupational and domestic exposure to toxic chemicals like formaldehyde (FA), which is widely common in Africa and the world at large. Hence, measures should be taken to protect humans from its hazardous effects. This study, therefore, examines the protective potential of Ganoderma lucidum (100 mg/kg body weight) on formaldehyde-induced (40%) liver oxido-inflammation in male rats. Male Wistar rats, 150–200 g, were allotted into four groups of 10 animals as follows: Group 1 was orally treated with 1 mg/mL distilled water, Group 2 was exposed to a 40% formaldehyde vapor environment for 30 min per day, Group 3 was orally treated with 100 mg/kg ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum, and Group 4 was co-administered formaldehyde and 100 mg/kg ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum. Rats were then sacrificed 24 h after administering the last dose of treatment, and the livers were excised. Ganoderma lucidum significantly reversed the formaldehyde-mediated reduction in body and organ weight. Ganoderma lucidum administration significantly prevented oxido-inflammation by reducing the levels of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde and increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione contents, as well as the normal level of nitrite and myeloperoxidase production in FA-treated rats. Additionally, Ganoderma lucidum reversed a large decline in proinflammatory markers in formaldehyde. Furthermore, Ganoderma lucidum restores formaldehyde-induced histological alterations in the liver. Collectively, our results provide valuable information on the protective potential of Ganoderma lucidum in protecting formaldehyde-induced liver oxido-inflammation in male rats. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ganoderma lucidum; formaldehyde; liver; oxidative stress; inflammation Ganoderma lucidum; formaldehyde; liver; oxidative stress; inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oluwafemi Adetuyi, B.; Olamide Okeowo, T.; Adefunke Adetuyi, O.; Abraham Adebisi, O.; Ogunlana, O.O.; Janet Oretade, O.; Marraiki, N.; Beshbishy, A.M.; N. Welson, N.; Batiha, G.E.-S. Ganoderma Lucidum from Red Mushroom Attenuates Formaldehyde-Induced Liver Damage in Experimental Male Rat Model. Biology 2020, 9, 313. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9100313

AMA Style

Oluwafemi Adetuyi B, Olamide Okeowo T, Adefunke Adetuyi O, Abraham Adebisi O, Ogunlana OO, Janet Oretade O, Marraiki N, Beshbishy AM, N. Welson N, Batiha GE-S. Ganoderma Lucidum from Red Mushroom Attenuates Formaldehyde-Induced Liver Damage in Experimental Male Rat Model. Biology. 2020; 9(10):313. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9100313

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oluwafemi Adetuyi, Babatunde, Tolulope Olamide Okeowo, Oluwatosin Adefunke Adetuyi, Oluwaseun Abraham Adebisi, Olubanke Olujoke Ogunlana, Oyeyemi Janet Oretade, Najat Marraiki, Amany Magdy Beshbishy, Nermeen N. Welson, and Gaber El-Saber Batiha. 2020. "Ganoderma Lucidum from Red Mushroom Attenuates Formaldehyde-Induced Liver Damage in Experimental Male Rat Model" Biology 9, no. 10: 313. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9100313

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