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Open AccessArticle

Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat Roots Reveals a Differential Regulation of Stress Responses Related to Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Soil Disturbance

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ICAAM—Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas, Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada, Universidade de Évora. Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, 7006-554 Évora, Portugal
2
School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
3
Laboratório HERCULES, Universidade de Évora, Largo Marquês de Marialva 8, 7000-809 Évora, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biology 2019, 8(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology8040093
Received: 6 November 2019 / Revised: 2 December 2019 / Accepted: 6 December 2019 / Published: 11 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Science)
Symbioses with soil microorganisms are central in shaping the diversity and productivity of land plants and provide protection against a diversity of stresses, including metal toxicity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can form extensive extraradical mycelial networks (ERM), which are very efficient in colonizing a new host. We quantified the responses of transcriptomes of wheat and one AMF partner, Rhizoglomus irregulare, to soil disturbance (Undisturbed vs. Disturbed) and to two different preceding mycotrophic species (Ornithopus compressus and Lolium rigidum). Soil disturbance and preceding plant species engender different AMF communities in wheat roots, resulting in a differential tolerance to soil manganese (Mn) toxicity. Soil disturbance negatively impacted wheat growth under manganese toxicity, probably due to the disruption of the ERM, and activated a large number of stress and starvation-related genes. The O. compressus treatment, which induces a greater Mn protection in wheat than L. rigidum, activated processes related to cellular division and growth, and very few related to stress. The L. rigidum treatment mostly induced genes that were related to oxidative stress, disease protection, and metal ion binding. R. irregulare cell division and molecular exchange between nucleus and cytoplasm were increased by O. compressus. These findings are highly relevant for sustainable agricultural systems, when considering a fit-for-purpose symbiosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Triticum aestivum; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; transcriptomic response; soil disturbance; manganese stress Triticum aestivum; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; transcriptomic response; soil disturbance; manganese stress
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Campos, C.; Nobre, T.; Goss, M.J.; Faria, J.; Barrulas, P.; Carvalho, M. Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat Roots Reveals a Differential Regulation of Stress Responses Related to Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Soil Disturbance. Biology 2019, 8, 93.

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