Two broad features are jointly necessary for autonomous agency: organisational closure and the embodiment of an objective-function providing a ‘goal’: so far only organisms demonstrate both. Organisational closure has been studied (mostly in abstract), especially as cell autopoiesis and the cybernetic principles of autonomy, but the role of an internalised ‘goal’ and how it is instantiated by cell signalling and the functioning of nervous systems has received less attention. Here I add some biological ‘flesh’ to the cybernetic theory and trace the evolutionary development of step-changes in autonomy: (1) homeostasis of organisationally closed systems; (2) perception-action systems; (3) action selection systems; (4) cognitive systems; (5) memory supporting a self-model able to anticipate and evaluate actions and consequences. Each stage is characterised by the number of nested goal-directed control-loops embodied by the organism, summarised as will-nestedness
. Organism tegument, receptor/transducer system, mechanisms of cellular and whole-organism re-programming and organisational integration, all contribute to causal independence. Conclusion: organisms are cybernetic phenomena whose identity is created by the information structure of the highest level of causal closure (maximum
), which has increased through evolution, leading to increased causal independence, which might be quantifiable by ‘Integrated Information Theory’ measures.
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