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Effects of Sex Steroids on Fish Leukocytes

1
Centro Oceanográfico de Murcia, Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 30860 Puerto de Mazarrón, Spain
2
Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Regional Campus of International Excellence “Campus Mare Nostrum,” University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 November 2017 / Revised: 29 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
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Abstract

In vertebrates, in addition to their classically reproductive functions, steroids regulate the immune system. This action is possible mainly due to the presence of steroid receptors in the different immune cell types. Much evidence suggests that the immune system of fish is vulnerable to xenosteroids, which are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. In vivo and in vitro assays have amply demonstrated that oestrogens interfere with both the innate and the adaptive immune system of fish by regulating the main leukocyte activities and transcriptional genes. They activate nuclear oestrogen receptors and/or G-protein coupled oestrogen receptor. Less understood is the role of androgens in the immune system, mainly due to the complexity of the transcriptional regulation of androgen receptors in fish. The aim of this manuscript is to review our present knowledge concerning the effect of sex steroid hormones and the presence of their receptors on fish leukocytes, taking into consideration that the studies performed vary as regard the fish species, doses, exposure protocols and hormones used. Moreover, we also include evidence of the probable role of progestins in the regulation of the immune system of fish. View Full-Text
Keywords: oestrogens; androgens; progestins; immune system; leukocytes; teleosts oestrogens; androgens; progestins; immune system; leukocytes; teleosts
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Chaves-Pozo, E.; García-Ayala, A.; Cabas, I. Effects of Sex Steroids on Fish Leukocytes. Biology 2018, 7, 9.

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