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Editorial for the Special Issue, ‘Secondary Metabolites from Microorganisms or Microorganism–Host Interaction?’

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography UM 110, Aix-Marseille University, Toulon University, CNRS, IRD, CEDEX 09, 13288 Marseille, France
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biology 2023, 12(12), 1515;
Submission received: 3 December 2023 / Revised: 10 December 2023 / Accepted: 11 December 2023 / Published: 12 December 2023
In this Special Issue, there are 13 published papers from over 10 countries. This Special Issue describes the microorganism–host interaction and symbiotic microorganisms’ secondary metabolites, such as pathogenic factors and antibiotics. This Special Issue provides insights for analyzing the mechanism of the relationship between microorganisms and the host.
The symbiotic relationship between microorganisms and their hosts is ubiquitous and can be mutualistic, commensal, or pathogenic to the host. The microbiota community from microorganisms associated with the gills of fish Oryzias melastigma has changed with the enriched osmosensing and metabolic pathways [1]. Research progress in antibiotics from insect-associated actinobacteria has been reviewed, and the molecular ecology of insect–actinobacterial interactions has been mediated by antibiotics [2]. The additional mechanism of pathogen plant colonization by Streptomyces scabiei has been introduced [3]. The chemical defense strategy of the sterol Stentor polymorphus against Coleps hirtus has been reported. The isolated and identified sterols are essential for chemical defense in S. polymorphus [4]. Motility, stress, and virulence from Escherichia coli associated with tomato fruits have been investigated; this paper provides new information on the physiological adaptation of bacteria colonizing the tomato fruit pericarp [5].
Secondary metabolites, such as natural compounds produced by microorganisms, are antibiotics, pigments, toxins, cycle inhibitors, metallophores, enzyme inhibitors, etc. The pigment echinenone (β-carotene pigment) was identified from Micrococcus lylae MW407006, pigment production was optimized, and biological activities were investigated. The synthesized nano-echinenone was proven to be safe, and this research paves the way for its potential use in the pharmaceutical industry [6]. Burkholderia pseudomallei can cause human neurological melioidosis. Though the bacteria and its pathogenic mechanism remain unknown, the research results indicate that the virulence factor (Cycle-inhibiting factor (Cif)) is involved in the B. pseudomallei invasion of human neuronal cells. This paper helps to discover new therapeutic targets for the disease [7]. The novel natural compound, Bacillamide F, isolated from marine Bacillus atrophaeus C89 and associated with marine sponge Dysidea avara, showed inhibitory activity of acute leukemia cell lines [8]. Important characteristics, including the biosynthesis process, secretion, uptake after metal chelation, and the genetic regulation of three types of metallophores from the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are discussed and reviewed [9]. The biosynthesis, export and import processes, and genetic regulation of several metallophores from Staphylococcus aureus are reviewed [10]. The structures, biosynthesis pathways, and genetic regulation of metallophore Yersiniabactin and Yersinopine from pathogen Yersinia pestis are also reviewed [11]. In archaea Haloferax mediterranei, the function of the gene-encoding enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites peptides is investigated [12]. The potential production of secondary metabolites from the Streptomyces vinaceusdrappus strain AC-40 is analyzed via genome mining [13].
We would like to thank all the authors for their submissions to this Special Issue. We also thank all the reviewers for dedicating their time and helping ensure the quality of the submitted papers, and, last but not least, the staff at the editorial office of Biology for their invaluable assistance.

Author Contributions

F.Z. and M.D. wrote this manuscript. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81973230) and the International Research Project (DYF2M, 2021-2025) from Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Lai, K.P.; Boncan, D.A.T.; Yang, L.; Leung, C.C.T.; Ho, J.C.H.; Lin, X.; Chan, T.F.; Kong, R.Y.C.; Tse, W.K.F. Osmotic Gradient Is a Factor That Influences the Gill Microbiota Communities in Oryzias melastigma. Biology 2022, 11, 1528. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Baranova, A.A.; Zakalyukina, Y.V.; Ovcharenko, A.A.; Korshun, V.A.; Tyurin, A.P. Antibiotics from Insect-Associated Actinobacteria. Biology 2022, 11, 1676. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Francis, I.M.; Bergin, D.; Deflandre, B.; Gupta, S.; Salazar, J.J.C.; Villagrana, R.; Stulanovic, N.; Ribeiro Monteiro, S.; Kerff, F.; Loria, R.; et al. Role of Alternative Elicitor Transporters in the Onset of Plant Host Colonization by Streptomyces scabiei 87-22. Biology 2023, 12, 234. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Buonanno, F.; Trenti, F.; Achille, G.; Vallesi, A.; Guella, G.; Ortenzi, C. Chemical Defence by Sterols in the Freshwater Ciliate Stentor polymorphus. Biology 2022, 11, 1749. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Vassallo, A.; Amoriello, R.; Guri, P.; Casbarra, L.; Ramazzotti, M.; Zaccaroni, M.; Ballerini, C.; Cavalieri, D.; Marvasi, M. Adaptation of Commensal Escherichia coli in Tomato Fruits: Motility, Stress, Virulence. Biology 2023, 12, 633. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Shahin, Y.H.; Elwakil, B.H.; Ghareeb, D.A.; Olama, Z.A. Micrococcus lylae MW407006 Pigment: Production, Optimization, Nano-Pigment Synthesis, and Biological Activities. Biology 2022, 11, 1171. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Rungruengkitkun, A.; Jitprasutwit, N.; Muangkaew, W.; Suttikornchai, C.; Tandhavanant, S.; Indrawattana, N.; Ampawong, S.; Sukphopetch, P.; Chantratita, N.; Pumirat, P. Cycle-Inhibiting Factor Is Associated with Burkholderia pseudomallei Invasion in Human Neuronal Cells. Biology 2022, 11, 1439. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Zhang, S.; Croppi, G.; Hu, H.; Li, Y.; Zhu, C.; Wu, F.; Zhang, F.; Li, Z. Bacillamide F, Extracted from Marine Bacillus atrophaeus C89, Preliminary Effects on Leukemia Cell Lines. Biology 2022, 11, 1712. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Ghssein, G.; Ezzeddine, Z. A Review of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Metallophores: Pyoverdine, Pyochelin and Pseudopaline. Biology 2022, 11, 1711. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Ghssein, G.; Ezzeddine, Z. The Key Element Role of Metallophores in the Pathogenicity and Virulence of Staphylococcus aureus: A Review. Biology 2022, 11, 1525. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Chaaban, T.; Mohsen, Y.; Ezzeddine, Z.; Ghssein, G. Overview of Yersinia pestis Metallophores: Yersiniabactin and Yersinopine. Biology 2023, 12, 598. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Costa, T.; Cassin, E.; Moreirinha, C.; Mendo, S.; Caetano, T.S. Towards the Understanding of the Function of Lanthipeptide and TOMM-Related Genes in Haloferax mediterranei. Biology 2023, 12, 236. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Sedeek, A.M.; Salah, I.; Kamel, H.L.; Soltan, M.A.; Nour, E.; Alshammari, A.; Riaz Rajoka, M.S.; Elsayed, T.R. Genome-Based Analysis of the Potential Bioactivity of the Terrestrial Streptomyces vinaceusdrappus Strain AC-40. Biology 2023, 12, 345. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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Zhang, F.; Denis, M. Editorial for the Special Issue, ‘Secondary Metabolites from Microorganisms or Microorganism–Host Interaction?’. Biology 2023, 12, 1515.

AMA Style

Zhang F, Denis M. Editorial for the Special Issue, ‘Secondary Metabolites from Microorganisms or Microorganism–Host Interaction?’. Biology. 2023; 12(12):1515.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Fengli, and Michel Denis. 2023. "Editorial for the Special Issue, ‘Secondary Metabolites from Microorganisms or Microorganism–Host Interaction?’" Biology 12, no. 12: 1515.

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