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Opinion

Genome-Directed Cell Nucleus Assembly

1
Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119334 Moscow, Russia
2
Faculty of Biology, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119234 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Brian D. Strahl, Ya Guo, Yue Wu, Guojun Hou and Shuang Cui
Biology 2022, 11(5), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11050708
Received: 21 March 2022 / Revised: 2 May 2022 / Accepted: 2 May 2022 / Published: 5 May 2022
Speckles and other nuclear bodies, the nucleolus and perinucleolar zone, transcription/replication factories and the lamina-associated compartment, serve as a structural basis for various genomic functions. In turn, genome activity and specific chromatin 3D organization directly impact the integrity of intranuclear assemblies, initiating/facilitating their formation and dictating their composition. Thus, the large-scale nucleus structure and genome activity mutually influence each other. The cell nucleus is frequently considered a compartment in which the genome is placed to protect it from external forces. Here, we discuss the evidence demonstrating that the cell nucleus should be considered, rather, as structure built around the folded genome. Decondensing chromosomes provide a scaffold for the assembly of the nuclear envelope after mitosis, whereas genome activity directs the assembly of various nuclear compartments, including nucleolus, speckles and transcription factories.
The cell nucleus is frequently considered a cage in which the genome is placed to protect it from various external factors. Inside the nucleus, many functional compartments have been identified that are directly or indirectly involved in implementing genomic DNA’s genetic functions. For many years, it was assumed that these compartments are assembled on a proteinaceous scaffold (nuclear matrix), which provides a structural milieu for nuclear compartmentalization and genome folding while simultaneously offering some rigidity to the cell nucleus. The results of research in recent years have made it possible to consider the cell nucleus from a different angle. From the “box” in which the genome is placed, the nucleus has become a kind of mobile exoskeleton, which is formed around the packaged genome, under the influence of transcription and other processes directly related to the genome activity. In this review, we summarize the main arguments in favor of this point of view by analyzing the mechanisms that mediate cell nucleus assembly and support its resistance to mechanical stresses. View Full-Text
Keywords: chromatin; genome folding; cell nucleus assembly; nuclear compartmentalization; liquid condensates; nuclear mechanics chromatin; genome folding; cell nucleus assembly; nuclear compartmentalization; liquid condensates; nuclear mechanics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Razin, S.V.; Ulianov, S.V. Genome-Directed Cell Nucleus Assembly. Biology 2022, 11, 708. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11050708

AMA Style

Razin SV, Ulianov SV. Genome-Directed Cell Nucleus Assembly. Biology. 2022; 11(5):708. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11050708

Chicago/Turabian Style

Razin, Sergey V., and Sergey V. Ulianov. 2022. "Genome-Directed Cell Nucleus Assembly" Biology 11, no. 5: 708. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11050708

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