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Article

Free d-Amino Acids in Salivary Gland in Rat

1
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tokai University, Isehara 259-1193, Japan
2
Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Tokai University, Isehara 259-1193, Japan
3
Tokyo Dental College, Tokyo 101-0061, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Dario Siniscalco and Vincenzo Lionetti
Biology 2022, 11(3), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11030390
Received: 21 January 2022 / Revised: 21 February 2022 / Accepted: 28 February 2022 / Published: 2 March 2022
Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands in rat were found to contain high concentrations of d-aspartic acid and low ones of d-serine and d-alanine. In addition to d-amino acid oxidase and d-aspartate oxidase, serine racemase was also detected in all three of these major salivary glands, as were N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor subunits NR1 and NR2D, but not NR2A, NR2B, or NR2C.
Free d-amino acids, which are enantiomers of l-amino acids, are found in mammals, including humans, and play an important role in a range of physiological functions in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Several d-amino acids have been observed in saliva, but their origin and the enzymes involved in their metabolism and catabolism remain to be clarified. In the present study, large amounts of d-aspartic acid and small amounts of d-serine and d-alanine were detected in all three major salivary glands in rat. No other d-enantiomers were detected. Protein expression of d-amino acid oxidase and d-aspartate oxidase, the enzymes responsible for the oxidative deamination of neutral and dicarboxylic d-amino acids, respectively, were detected in all three types of salivary gland. Furthermore, protein expression of the d-serine metabolic enzyme, serine racemase, in parotid glands amounted to approximately 40% of that observed in the cerebral cortex. The N-methyl-d-aspartic acid subunit proteins NR1 and NR2D were detected in all three major salivary glands. The results of the present study suggest that d-amino acids play a physiological role in a range of endocrine and exocrine function in salivary glands. View Full-Text
Keywords: d-amino acid; salivary gland; NMDA receptor; serine racemase; d-amino acid oxidase; d-aspartate oxidase d-amino acid; salivary gland; NMDA receptor; serine racemase; d-amino acid oxidase; d-aspartate oxidase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yoshikawa, M.; Kan, T.; Shirose, K.; Watanabe, M.; Matsuda, M.; Ito, K.; Kawaguchi, M. Free d-Amino Acids in Salivary Gland in Rat. Biology 2022, 11, 390. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11030390

AMA Style

Yoshikawa M, Kan T, Shirose K, Watanabe M, Matsuda M, Ito K, Kawaguchi M. Free d-Amino Acids in Salivary Gland in Rat. Biology. 2022; 11(3):390. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11030390

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yoshikawa, Masanobu, Takugi Kan, Kosuke Shirose, Mariko Watanabe, Mitsumasa Matsuda, Kenji Ito, and Mitsuru Kawaguchi. 2022. "Free d-Amino Acids in Salivary Gland in Rat" Biology 11, no. 3: 390. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11030390

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