Next Article in Journal
2La Paracentric Chromosomal Inversion and Overexpressed Metabolic Genes Enhance Thermotolerance and Pyrethroid Resistance in the Major Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae
Previous Article in Journal
A Reliable and Standardizable Differential PCR and qPCR Methodology Assesses HER2 Gene Amplification in Gastric Cancer
 
 
Article

Breast Cancer Detection from a Urine Sample by Dog Sniffing: A Preliminary Study for the Development of a New Screening Device, and a Literature Review

1
Department of Integrated Diagnostic Pathology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo 113-8602, Japan
2
Department of Breast Oncology, Nippon Medical School, Chiba Hokusoh Hospital, Chiba 270-1694, Japan
3
Faculty of Medical Science, Nippon Sport Science University, Kanagawa 227-0033, Japan
4
Department of Breast Surgery and Oncology, Nippon Medical School Hospital, Tokyo 113-8603, Japan
5
Department of Surgery, Jizankai Medical Foundation Tsuboi Cancer Center Hospital, Fukushima 963-0197, Japan
6
St. Sugar Canine Cancer Detection Training Center, Chiba 294-0226, Japan
7
Nippon Medical School, Tokyo 113-8602, Japan
8
Twin Peaks Laboratory of Medicine (TPLM), Yamagata 999-4331, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Claudio Luparello and Loredana Moro
Biology 2021, 10(6), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10060517
Received: 11 May 2021 / Revised: 6 June 2021 / Accepted: 8 June 2021 / Published: 10 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Biology)
This study aims to assess whether the urine sample can be used for breast cancer screening by its fingerprints of volatile organic compounds using a single trained sniffer dog. A nine-year-old female Labrador Retriever was trained to identify cancer from urine samples of breast cancer patients. Urine samples from patients histologically diagnosed with primary breast cancer, those with non-breast malignant diseases, and healthy volunteers were obtained, and a double-blind test was performed. The trained dog in this study could accurately detect breast cancer from urine samples of breast cancer patients. These results indicate the feasibility of a method to detect breast cancer from urine samples using dog sniffing in the diagnosis of breast cancer.
Background: Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Several studies have demonstrated that dogs can sniff and detect cancer in the breath or urine sample of a patient. This study aims to assess whether the urine sample can be used for breast cancer screening by its fingerprints of volatile organic compounds using a single trained sniffer dog. This is a preliminary study for developing the “electronic nose” for cancer screening. Methods: A nine-year-old female Labrador Retriever was trained to identify cancer from urine samples of breast cancer patients. Urine samples from patients histologically diagnosed with primary breast cancer, those with non-breast malignant diseases, and healthy volunteers were obtained, and a double-blind test was performed. Total of 40 patients with breast cancer, 142 patients with non-breast malignant diseases, and 18 healthy volunteers were enrolled, and their urine samples were collected. Results: In 40 times out of 40 runs of a double-blind test, the trained dog could correctly identify urine samples of breast cancer patients. Sensitivity and specificity of this breast cancer detection method using dog sniffing were both 100%. Conclusions: The trained dog in this study could accurately detect breast cancer from urine samples of breast cancer patients. These results indicate the feasibility of a method to detect breast cancer from urine samples using dog sniffing in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Although the methodological standardization is still an issue to be discussed, the current result warrants further study for developing a new breast cancer screening method based on volatile organic compounds in urine samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: dogs; diagnosis; canine cancer detection; breast cancer; urine sample dogs; diagnosis; canine cancer detection; breast cancer; urine sample
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kure, S.; Iida, S.; Yamada, M.; Takei, H.; Yamashita, N.; Sato, Y.; Miyashita, M. Breast Cancer Detection from a Urine Sample by Dog Sniffing: A Preliminary Study for the Development of a New Screening Device, and a Literature Review. Biology 2021, 10, 517. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10060517

AMA Style

Kure S, Iida S, Yamada M, Takei H, Yamashita N, Sato Y, Miyashita M. Breast Cancer Detection from a Urine Sample by Dog Sniffing: A Preliminary Study for the Development of a New Screening Device, and a Literature Review. Biology. 2021; 10(6):517. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10060517

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kure, Shoko, Shinya Iida, Marina Yamada, Hiroyuki Takei, Naoyuki Yamashita, Yuji Sato, and Masao Miyashita. 2021. "Breast Cancer Detection from a Urine Sample by Dog Sniffing: A Preliminary Study for the Development of a New Screening Device, and a Literature Review" Biology 10, no. 6: 517. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10060517

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop