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Article

Bacterial Endophytes of Spring Wheat Grains and the Potential to Acquire Fe, Cu, and Zn under Their Low Soil Bioavailability

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Department of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 4 Hrushevsky Street, 79005 Lviv, Ukraine
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Department of Biology and Biotechnology of Microorganisms, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, 1I Konstantynów Street, 20-708 Lublin, Poland
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Institute of Ecology of the Carpathians, NAS of Ukraine, 4 Kozelnytska Street, 79000 Lviv, Ukraine
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Department of Plant Physiology and Biotechnology, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, 1I Konstantynów Street, 20-708 Lublin, Poland
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Soil and Crop Sciences Section, School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University, 608 Bradfield Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Aria Dolatabadian
Biology 2021, 10(5), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10050409
Received: 31 March 2021 / Revised: 27 April 2021 / Accepted: 1 May 2021 / Published: 5 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Microbe Interaction)
Unmasking the overall endophytic bacteria communities from wheat grains may help to identify and describe the microbial colonization of bread and emmer varieties, their link to the bioactive compounds produced, and their possible role in mineral nutrition. The possibility of using microorganisms to improve the microelemental composition of grain is an important food security concern, as approximately one-third of the human population experiences latent starvation caused by Fe (anemia), Zn, or Cu deficiency. Four wheat varieties from T. aestivum L. and T. turgidum subsp. dicoccum were grown in field conditions with low bioavailability of microelements in the soil. Varietal differences in the yield, yield characteristics, and the grain micronutrient concentrations were compared with the endophytic bacteria isolated from the grains. Twelve different bacterial isolates were obtained that represented the genera Staphylococcus, Pantoea, Sphingobium, Bacillus, Kosakonia, and Micrococcus. All studied strains were able to synthesize indole-related compounds (IRCs) with phytohormonal activity. IRCs produced by the bacterial genera Pantoea spp. and Bacillus spp. isolated from high-yielding Oksamyt myronivs’kyi and Holikovs’ka grains may be considered as one of the determinants of the yield of wheat and its nutritional characteristics.
Wheat grains are usually low in essential micronutrients. In resolving the problem of grain micronutritional quality, microbe-based technologies, including bacterial endophytes, seem to be promising. Thus, we aimed to (1) isolate and identify grain endophytic bacteria from selected spring wheat varieties (bread Oksamyt myronivs’kyi, Struna myronivs’ka, Dubravka, and emmer Holikovs’ka), which were all grown in field conditions with low bioavailability of microelements, and (2) evaluate the relationship between endophytes’ abilities to synthesize auxins and the concentration of Fe, Zn, and Cu in grains. The calculated biological accumulation factor (BAF) allowed for comparing the varietal ability to uptake and transport micronutrients to the grains. For the first time, bacterial endophytes were isolated from grains of emmer wheat T. turgidum subsp. dicoccum. Generally, the 12 different isolates identified in the four varieties belonged to the genera Staphylococcus, Pantoea, Sphingobium, Bacillus, Kosakonia, and Micrococcus (NCBI accession numbers: MT302194—MT302204, MT312840). All the studied strains were able to synthesize the indole-related compounds (IRCs; max: 16.57 µg∙mL−1) detected using the Salkowski reagent. The IRCs produced by the bacterial genera Pantoea spp. and Bacillus spp. isolated from high-yielding Oksamyt myronivs’kyi and Holikovs’ka grains may be considered as one of the determinants of the yield of wheat and its nutritional characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: spring wheat; T. aestivum L.; emmer wheat; yield; endophytic bacteria; iron; copper; zinc spring wheat; T. aestivum L.; emmer wheat; yield; endophytic bacteria; iron; copper; zinc
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MDPI and ACS Style

Makar, O.; Kuźniar, A.; Patsula, O.; Kavulych, Y.; Kozlovskyy, V.; Wolińska, A.; Skórzyńska-Polit, E.; Vatamaniuk, O.; Terek, O.; Romanyuk, N. Bacterial Endophytes of Spring Wheat Grains and the Potential to Acquire Fe, Cu, and Zn under Their Low Soil Bioavailability. Biology 2021, 10, 409. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10050409

AMA Style

Makar O, Kuźniar A, Patsula O, Kavulych Y, Kozlovskyy V, Wolińska A, Skórzyńska-Polit E, Vatamaniuk O, Terek O, Romanyuk N. Bacterial Endophytes of Spring Wheat Grains and the Potential to Acquire Fe, Cu, and Zn under Their Low Soil Bioavailability. Biology. 2021; 10(5):409. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10050409

Chicago/Turabian Style

Makar, Orysia, Agnieszka Kuźniar, Ostap Patsula, Yana Kavulych, Volodymyr Kozlovskyy, Agnieszka Wolińska, Ewa Skórzyńska-Polit, Olena Vatamaniuk, Olga Terek, and Nataliya Romanyuk. 2021. "Bacterial Endophytes of Spring Wheat Grains and the Potential to Acquire Fe, Cu, and Zn under Their Low Soil Bioavailability" Biology 10, no. 5: 409. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10050409

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