Next Article in Journal
Pressure Perturbation Studies of Noncanonical Viral Nucleic Acid Structures
Next Article in Special Issue
Novice Female Exercisers Exhibited Different Biomechanical Loading Profiles during Full-Squat and Half-Squat Practice
Previous Article in Journal
Molecular Effects of Elongation Factor Ts and Trigger Factor on the Unfolding and Aggregation of Elongation Factor Tu Induced by the Prokaryotic Molecular Chaperone Hsp33
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Theoretical Framework of the Clinical Pilates Exercise Method in Managing Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain: A Narrative Review
 
 
Article

Biochemical Response to Freezing in the Siberian Salamander Salamandrella keyserlingii

1
Institute of the Biological Problems of the North FEB RAS, 685000 Magadan, Russia
2
Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
3
International Tomography Center SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
4
Department of Physics, Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yaodong Gu, Julien S. Baker, Justin Fernandez, Stephen F Burns and Qichang Mei
Biology 2021, 10(11), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111172
Received: 18 October 2021 / Revised: 9 November 2021 / Accepted: 10 November 2021 / Published: 12 November 2021
The Siberian salamander is a unique amphibian that is capable to survive long-term freezing at −55 °C. We used 1H-NMR analysis to study quantitative changes of multiple metabolites in liver and hindlimb muscle of the Siberian salamander in response to freezing. For the majority of molecules we observed significant changes in concentrations. Glycerol content in frozen organs was as high as 2% w/w, which confirms its role as a cryoprotectant. No other putative cryoprotectants were detected. Freezing resulted in increased concentrations of glycolysis products: lactate and alanine. Unexpectedly, we detected no increase in concentrations of succinate, which accumulates under ischemia in various tetrapods. Freezing proved to be a dramatic stress with high levels of nucleotide degradation products. There was also significant increase in the concentrations of choline and glycerophosphocholine, which may be interpreted as the degradation of biomembranes. Thus, we found that freezing results not only in macroscopical damage due to ice formation, but also to degradation of DNA and biomembranes.
The Siberian salamander Salamandrella keyserlingii Dybowski, 1870 is a unique amphibian that is capable to survive long-term freezing at −55 °C. Nothing is known on the biochemical basis of this remarkable freezing tolerance, except for the fact that it uses glycerol as a low molecular weight cryoprotectant. We used 1H-NMR analysis to study quantitative changes of multiple metabolites in liver and hindlimb muscle of S. keyserlingii in response to freezing. For the majority of molecules we observed significant changes in concentrations. Glycerol content in frozen organs was as high as 2% w/w, which confirms its role as a cryoprotectant. No other putative cryoprotectants were detected. Freezing resulted in ischemia manifested as increased concentrations of glycolysis products: lactate and alanine. Unexpectedly, we detected no increase in concentrations of succinate, which accumulates under ischemia in various tetrapods. Freezing proved to be a dramatic stress with reduced adenosine phosphate pool and high levels of nucleotide degradation products (hypoxanthine, β-alanine, and β-aminoisobutyrate). There was also significant increase in the concentrations of choline and glycerophosphocholine, which may be interpreted as the degradation of biomembranes. Thus, we found that freezing results not only in macroscopical damage due to ice formation, but also to degradation of DNA and biomembranes. View Full-Text
Keywords: freeze tolerance; freezing; cryoprotectants; glycolysis; Siberian salamander; Salamandrella keyserlingii freeze tolerance; freezing; cryoprotectants; glycolysis; Siberian salamander; Salamandrella keyserlingii
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Shekhovtsov, S.V.; Bulakhova, N.A.; Tsentalovich, Y.P.; Zelentsova, E.A.; Meshcheryakova, E.N.; Poluboyarova, T.V.; Berman, D.I. Biochemical Response to Freezing in the Siberian Salamander Salamandrella keyserlingii. Biology 2021, 10, 1172. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111172

AMA Style

Shekhovtsov SV, Bulakhova NA, Tsentalovich YP, Zelentsova EA, Meshcheryakova EN, Poluboyarova TV, Berman DI. Biochemical Response to Freezing in the Siberian Salamander Salamandrella keyserlingii. Biology. 2021; 10(11):1172. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111172

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shekhovtsov, Sergei V., Nina A. Bulakhova, Yuri P. Tsentalovich, Ekaterina A. Zelentsova, Ekaterina N. Meshcheryakova, Tatiana V. Poluboyarova, and Daniil I. Berman. 2021. "Biochemical Response to Freezing in the Siberian Salamander Salamandrella keyserlingii" Biology 10, no. 11: 1172. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111172

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop