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Agricultural Waste as a Reinforcement Particulate for Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite (AMMCs): A Review

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Ota, 112212 Ogun State, Nigeria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fibers 2019, 7(4), 33;
Received: 13 January 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
PDF [433 KB, uploaded 15 April 2019]


The desire to create sustainable development through research birthed this study. Over time, several authors have focused on the utilization of various chemical particulates as reinforcement constituents for metallic matric composites (MMCs) and aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMCs), which has thus far yielded positive outcomes for achieving the chemical, mechanical, microstructural, thermal, corrosion, and wear property improvement of various reinforced composites. However, this study focused on the search for the residing potentials in alternative materials that can be used as reinforcement particulates in place of the commonly used graphite, silicon nitride, titanium nitride, zirconium, and the likes. This study literarily revealed, via several reviews of literature, that the search for less expensive and easily procured materials with a silicon oxide and magnesium oxide chemical content instigated the utilization of materials from agricultural waste (agro-waste). According to the reviewed literature, some of the waste materials from agriculture that have been found to be useful for the particulate reinforcement of composites are groundnut shell, coconut shell, rice husk, breadfruit seed hull ash, aloe vera, bean pod ash, cow horn, and so on. It was discovered that processed agro-wastes in the form of powdery particulates have demonstrated great reinforcing abilities, as recorded in literature. In addition, they enhanced the mechanical properties of the various composites developed in comparison to the as-cast materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: agro-waste; particulate; fiber; composite; metal matrix composites (MMCs) agro-waste; particulate; fiber; composite; metal matrix composites (MMCs)

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Joseph, O.O.; Babaremu, K.O. Agricultural Waste as a Reinforcement Particulate for Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite (AMMCs): A Review. Fibers 2019, 7, 33.

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