- freely available
Coatings 2018, 8(7), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8070251
2. Clarification of the Technologies, the Difference from Conventional PV Technologies
2.1. Background of Car-Roof PV Development
2.2. The New Value in Appearance
2.3. High Performance Required for Car Engines
2.4. The Difference in Performance Modeling and Characterization
- The axis is local to the car. Namely, they move by the movement of the car, and it is independent of the azimuth orientation. However, the relative position is unchanged and thus a linear coordinate conversion dynamically synchronized to the position, direction, and speed of the car, monitored by a GPS system, can handle this situation.
- In principle, the coordinate is orthogonal. The model of Baltazar et al.  was not.
2.5. The Difference in the Utilization of Solar Energy
2.6. Need for New Standardization
2.7. Related Technologies Out of the Car
3. Discussion—Impact on All PV Technologies
4. Conclusions—List of To Dos
4.1. Rating Tests
4.1.1. Definition of the Standard Irradiation for Testing the Car-Roof Photovoltaic Products
- Orientation/declination of the artificial collimated light mimicking the direct solar irradiation onto the car-roof;
- Is it sufficient to represent the direct beam of the sunlight by a single angle of the light? Do we need to prepare multiple collimated lights to represent various levels of the sun height?
- The standard value of the ratio of (the diffused sunlight)/(the direct sunlight).
4.1.2. Definition of the Standard Irradiation
- Definition of the standard illumination, including spectrum, irradiance, the ratio of the collimated component to the diffused component, size of the light source relative to the photovoltaic module, and angular distribution;
- Size of the diffused source relative to the size of the car-roof PV. The diffused light source contains rays with a low angle and the car-roof PV may not absorb such rays unless the size of the light source is large enough;
- Height of the diffused source from the car-roof PV. Since the size of the diffused light source is finite, the distance from the light source affects the measurement conditions;
- Spotlights may be used as the collimated light source, representing the direct component of the sunlight. The specification of the collimation is needed;
- Since the size of the spotlight is limited, it is likely smaller than the car-roof panel area. Multiple spotlights may be necessary but we need to decide the specifications and requirements of the spot-light array;
- It is likely that the car-roof photovoltaic may be the spectral-sensitive multi-junction solar cells. For reasonable spectral representation, a cocktail of multiple lamps will be necessary. The solar simulators using a cocktail lamp are already commercialized but they need to be upgraded with additional control of diffused/direct ratio and angular distribution.
4.1.3. Specification of the Light Source and the Testing Room
- A detailed procedure needs to be prepared;
- The color of the wall/floor/ceiling of the testing room may affect the measurement. Considering that the car-roof PV product may have cosmetics of the controlled color coatings, it is crucial to quantify the influence of the color of the testing room. Note that the car-roof PV is used at a relatively higher ratio of the diffused sunlight and that diffused light is affected by the color of the room through wall/floor/ceiling reflections;
- Is a car-fixture needed (same color)? Fixtures may solve the color issue problems.
- The PV for passenger cars is not only loaded on the car-roof. How about the door, and engine hood? When this happens, can we apply the same testing conditions?
- The temperature of the standard testing condition (indoors) is 25 °C. Is it an appropriate testing condition for the car-roof PV? Do we need to increase the temperature, for example, to 60 °C?
- Is the flexible PV tested before mounting or after mounting? The shape of the photovoltaic panel changes after mounting on the car. The panel shape affects the photovoltaic performance.
4.2. Design Qualification
4.2.1. Environmental Tests
- List of the testing items and their conditions. Preferably with pass/fail criteria.
- The necessity of car-specific tests including weight, dimensions, aerodynamics, safety, robustness to car-wash, and so forth.
4.2.2. Requirements for Qualification
- Definition of the minimum requirement and its background;
- Label, specification sheet, and its required item list;
- Retest guideline, namely when the car-roof PV undergoes a minor design change to fit a new or customized car design, what kind of retest items need to be required to keep qualification recognition?
- Range of resembles as the criteria for the necessity of retests;
- Who is the testing certification body? Are they controlled by IECEE (IEC System of Conformity Assessment Schemes for Electrotechnical Equipment and Components)?
- List and definition of terms;
- Specification of the car-interface like cables and connectors.
4.3. Power Modeling
4.3.1. Modeling Work
- Simplified parameter (Curve correction): Full three-dimensional parameters may not be intuitive and thus difficult to understand for most of the engineers who are accustomed to working on photovoltaic with two-dimensional parameters. A kind of a correction factor, for example, a curve correction coefficient will be helpful. This parameter should be identical to the curve shape;
- Modeling by rigorous calculation: For the development of solid modeling, the parameter measurement and the representation of the standard operating conditions, some approximation will be necessary. To validate the approximated approach, rigorous modeling should be established as a benchmark of the research and development;
- Interaction to the string orientation: Both output current and output power of the curved car-roof PV will not be proportional to the absorbed irradiance. The mismatching loss among strings that is not significant in a conventional photovoltaic module, unless it is partially shaded, will be significant to car-roof PV. Inherently, it will make a variation of the cosine loss and the self-shaded loss that enhance the mismatching loss among strings. The mismatching loss varies by the orientation of the string relative to the sun orientation;
- Unit element vs. Shape calculation: Related to the above item, a direct extension from two-dimensional modeling that has been used in conventional PV is that the three-dimensionally curved surface is divided into many small unit elements, standard calculation is conducted and then computed from a surface integral. It is important to compare any curve-correction factors by this approach;
- Curve-shape representation (for example, 90% angle): A three-dimensional CAD (Computer Aided Drawing) file may provide the three-dimensional curve profile of the car-roof. Thanks to the development of CAD/CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) technologies, it is not very difficult to do geometrical calculation directly from the CAD file. However, this procedure often concedes apparent problems because the geometrical information is often concealed in the Blackbox. An intuitive and practical parameter will be helpful for understanding what is going on in the geometrical and modeling calculation;
- Outdoor measurement validation: It should be done by multiple modes of operation, like various levels of latitude, climate shading (like rural or urban area);
- Definition of a light-source model: For the development of the testing procedure discussed in the above section, the development of light source modeling will be necessary.
4.3.2. Parameter Measurement for Modeling
- AOI (Angle of incidence) measurement: Since the car-roof PV collects three-dimensional sunlight, especially the rays from a high incident angle, AOI measurement will be crucial. Different from the conventional PV panels, the AOI characteristics are not axially symmetrical. It is not uniform at the position of the panel, because the curvature varies and the self-shading effect varies by the position of the car-roof panels;
- Standard solar irradiation condition onto the car-roof;
- PV fine color: It is likely that the advanced coating technology decorates the car-roof PV and shows a variety of colors like car-body paint. Impact of color variation needs to be intensively studied. The impact factor of the color should be defined in both physical background and detailed measurement procedures.
4.4. Energy Prediction
4.4.1. kWh/kW, km/kW Issue
- Difference between GHI and car-roof PV: Possibly, the scale closest to normal solar irradiance may be GHI (Global Horizontal Irradiance). The quickest way is to clarify the difference from GHI both by modeling and measurement;
- Power modeling vs. climate: Clarification of the quantitative difference of the power output influenced by climate and other meteorological conditions. Note that the generation on cloudy and rainy days will be equally crucial to the car-roof PV, unlike the conventional PV for utility;
- Three-Dimensional solar modeling: Car-roof PV tries to collect solar energy not only from the normal directions. The module itself is three-dimensionally curved. Modeling solar irradiation by three-dimensional may be convenient.
4.4.2. Energy Nowcasting
- High-speed calculation algorithm;
- Link to the drive recorder image (dynamic shading);
- The requirement of the dataset (item etc.);
- Map integration.
4.4.3. Standard Smart Administration
- Standard data format;
- Standard procedure (using satellite?).
Conflicts of Interest
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|Type||Masuda et al. ||NEDO |
|Base solar resource||Global horizontal irradiance in Nagoya, Japan, N35.2°, E136.9°, averaged in 1961–2012||Global horizontal irradiance in Tokyo, Japan, N35.7°, E139.7°, given by METPV11 standard solar irradiance database |
|Projected area for the PV panel||Roof + Engine hood: 2.6 m2Roof: 1.8 m2||3.23 m2|
|Required PV module efficiency||–||31%|
|Temperature loss coefficient||–||0.91|
|MPPT loss coefficient||0.95||0.95|
|DC/DC conversion loss coefficient||0.90||0.9|
|DC Charging/discharging loss coefficient||0.95||0.95|
|Total loss coefficient by PV system||–||0.739|
|Loss by the Electronic Control System (ECS)||0 kWh/day||0.12 kWh/day|
|Driving range from electricity||17 km/kWh||12.5 km/kWh|
|Gasoline mileage for HV||–||47.6 km/L|
|Car-battery size||–||40 kWh (EV)|
1.3 kWh (HV)
10 kWh (PHV)
|The ratio of the number of solar-dependent passenger cars||68%||70%|
|III-V (GaAs)||29.7%||28.8% (97%)|
|III-V (3J) 1||42%||37.9% (90%)|
|III-V (5J) 1||43%||38.8% (90%)|
|III-V on Si||38.0%||35.9% (94%)|
|Quantum Dot||25.8%||13.4% (52%)|
|Perovskite||24.9%||22.1% (89%) 2|
|Point||Meteorological||Terrestrial PV||Car-Roof PV|
|Goal||Horizontal (2-D)||Sloped surface (2-D)||3-D → local coordinates|
|Calculation Speed||1 h order||1 min order||0.1 s order|
|Algorithm||Ray-tracing||Parametric (incl. integration)||Look-up table Linear combination|
|Area||10–1000 km order||1–10 km order||10 m order|
|Transient voltage||Durability to transient voltage||X||Various waveform, 96 h||X|
|EMC||Electrical field||X||0.1–10 V|
|Magnetic field||X||5–100 V/m|
|Temperature||Low T storage||X||−40 °C, 70 h|
|Low T operation||X||−30 °C, 70 h|
|High T storage||X||120 °C, 94 h||X|
|High T operation||X||100 °C, 118 h|
|Heat cycle||X||−30 to 100 °C, 30 cycles||X|
|Heat shock||X||−30 to 120 °C, 6 cycles||X|
|Temperature/Humidity cycle||X||−10 to 60 °C, 90 RH %||X|
|High humidity operation||X||60 °C, 90 RH %, 94 h||X|
|Water||Water jet, wet insulation||X||JISD0203||X|
|Saltwater||Salt spray test||X||JISC5208||X|
|Oil||Oil resistant test||X||JISK6301||X|
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