Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on titanium have been investigated for many years, and have demonstrated advantageous biocompatibility in dental implants. Animal experiments have demonstrated that the biological response to plasma-sprayed HA-coated implants shows disadvantages in terms of adherence, thickness uniformity, and long-term osseointegration effects. Determining how to resolve the degradation problem of HA in the body by improving osseointegration and stability in alveolar bones has become an increasingly researched topic. The present study investigated the film characteristics and dissolution properties of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings obtained by radio-frequency (RF) sputtering of a self-developed atmospheric plasma spray (APS) HA target. The experimental parameters varied, including RF power (60–250 W), sputtering time (15–120 min), and substrate roughness (0.4–4 μm). Analyses were conducted using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), white light interferometry, and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). EDS analysis showed that the Ca/P ratio increased as the discharge power was increased. The analysis results also showed that a lower surface roughness resulted in higher crystallinity, because a larger surface-free energy was attained during sputtering. In-plane texturing has been proven when HA films are sputtered onto substrates of varying roughness, within appropriate deposition parameters. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of the principal PO43-
bonds in the deposited calcium phosphate films. The CaP films induced calcium phosphate precipitation when immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF), suggesting that, based on in vitro bioactive behavior, the proposed combined surface modification can be used in dental implants.
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