Next Article in Journal
UV-LED Curing Efficiency of Wood Coatings
Next Article in Special Issue
The Porter-Whitesides Discrepancy: Revisiting Odd-Even Effects in Wetting Properties of n-Alkanethiolate SAMs
Previous Article in Journal
Recent Progress in Gas Barrier Thin Film Coatings on PET Bottles in Food and Beverage Applications
Previous Article in Special Issue
Synthesis of a pH- and Thermo- Responsive Binary Copolymer Poly(N-vinylimidazole-co-N-vinylcaprolactam) Grafted onto Silicone Films
Article Menu
Issue 4 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Revisiting the Challenges in Fabricating Uniform Coatings with Polyfunctional Molecules on High Surface Energy Materials

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, 2220 Hoover Hall, Ames, IA 50011, USA
Micro-Electronic Research Center, Iowa State University, 133 Applied Sciences Complex I, 1925 Scholl Road, Ames, IA 50011, USA
Biopolymer and Biocomposites Research Team, Center for Bioplastics and Biocomposites, Iowa State University, 1041 Food Sciences Building, Ames, IA 50011, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: James Tsoi
Coatings 2015, 5(4), 1002-1018;
Received: 1 October 2015 / Revised: 27 November 2015 / Accepted: 4 December 2015 / Published: 18 December 2015
PDF [3592 KB, uploaded 18 December 2015]


Modifying the chemistry of a surface has been widely used to influence interfacial properties of a material or nature of interaction between two materials. This article provides an overview on the role of polyfunctional molecules, specifically silanes, in surface modification of polar surfaces (bearing soft nucleophiles). An emphasis on the mechanism of the reaction in the presence of adsorbed water, where the modifying reagents are hydrolysable, is discussed. To highlight the complexity of the reaction, modification of paper with trichlorosilanes is highlighted. Preparation of hydrophobic cellulosic paper, and structure–property relations under different treatment conditions is used to highlight that a monolayer is not always formed during the surface modification. Gel-formation via step-growth polymerization suggests that at the right monomer:adsorbed water ratio, a monolayer will not form but rather self-assembly driven particle formation will occur leading to a textured surface. The review highlights recent work indicating that the focus on monolayer formation, is at the very least, not always the case but gel formation, with concomitant self-assembly, might be the culprit in understanding challenges associated with the use of polyfunctional molecules in surface modification. View Full-Text
Keywords: silane; surface science; coatings; monolayers; polymer gel; surface water silane; surface science; coatings; monolayers; polymer gel; surface water

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Oyola-Reynoso, S.; Wang, Z.; Chen, J.; Çınar, S.; Chang, B.; Thuo, M. Revisiting the Challenges in Fabricating Uniform Coatings with Polyfunctional Molecules on High Surface Energy Materials. Coatings 2015, 5, 1002-1018.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Coatings EISSN 2079-6412 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top