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Review

Cross-Scale Biological Models of Species for Future Biomimetic Composite Design: A Review

1
Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China
2
X Lab, Second Academy of CASIC, Beijing 100854, China
3
School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ajay Vikram Singh
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111297
Received: 6 October 2021 / Revised: 19 October 2021 / Accepted: 22 October 2021 / Published: 26 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Bionic and Bio-Inspired Interface Materials)
The rise in structural performance requirements in engineering is driving the research and development of stronger, stiffer, and lighter materials. However, most traditional artificial materials are unable to meet the needs of modern industrial and technological development. In fact, multifarious creatures in nature are further ahead in their use of structural materials. There is a fairly limited selection of natural structural materials at ambient temperatures. They usually consist of hard and soft phases arranged in a complex hierarchy with characteristic dimensions ranging from nanoscale to macroscale. The resulting materials usually show a nearly perfect combination of strength and toughness integrated with lightweight characteristics. This is exactly what is required of engineering materials. In this review, different biological materials were divided into the following types in terms of structural elements: 1D fibrous structures, 2D layered structures, 3D cellular structures and heterogeneous interface structures. For each structural element, corresponding structure components and mechanical properties of typical organisms were well described. Abundant sophisticated models of natural biological structures were discussed contrastively. The purpose of this review was to summarize the excellent properties of multi-dimensional biological models with cross-scale features and to reveal the relationship between structure characteristics and function mechanism, which could provide valuable references for the design and optimization of a future biomimetic composite with high mechanical performance. This review is anticipated to not only inspire novel biomimetic design but also offer a window for the deep understanding of existing outstanding structural composites in diversified species, which could provide continuous innovative power for composite renovation in many engineering fields. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomimetic composites; hierarchical structures; structural elements; biological models; mechanical properties biomimetic composites; hierarchical structures; structural elements; biological models; mechanical properties
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MDPI and ACS Style

Song, W.; Mu, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, Y.; Hu, H.; Ma, Z.; Huang, L.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, B.; Li, Y.; Zhang, S.; Li, B.; Zhang, J.; Niu, S.; Han, Z.; Ren, L. Cross-Scale Biological Models of Species for Future Biomimetic Composite Design: A Review. Coatings 2021, 11, 1297. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111297

AMA Style

Song W, Mu Z, Zhang Z, Wang Y, Hu H, Ma Z, Huang L, Wang Z, Zhang B, Li Y, Zhang S, Li B, Zhang J, Niu S, Han Z, Ren L. Cross-Scale Biological Models of Species for Future Biomimetic Composite Design: A Review. Coatings. 2021; 11(11):1297. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111297

Chicago/Turabian Style

Song, Wenda, Zhengzhi Mu, Zhiyan Zhang, Yufei Wang, Handong Hu, Zhe Ma, Liewei Huang, Ze Wang, Binjie Zhang, Yujiao Li, Shuang Zhang, Bo Li, Junqiu Zhang, Shichao Niu, Zhiwu Han, and Luquan Ren. 2021. "Cross-Scale Biological Models of Species for Future Biomimetic Composite Design: A Review" Coatings 11, no. 11: 1297. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11111297

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