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Open AccessArticle

Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Human, Chicken and Environmental Samples within Live Bird Markets in Three Nigerian Cities

1
Department of Microbiology, College of Biosciences, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta 110124, Nigeria
2
Institute of Microbiology and Epizootics, Centre for Infection Medicine, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany
3
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta 110124, Nigeria
4
Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta 110124, Nigeria
5
Department Biological Safety, German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), 10589 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2020, 9(9), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090588
Received: 27 July 2020 / Revised: 31 August 2020 / Accepted: 4 September 2020 / Published: 8 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci)
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a major threat to public health. This study investigated the occurrence of MRSA in humans, chickens, chicken meat and environmental samples within poultry farms and live bird markets in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: MRSA were isolated using selective culture and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by broth microdilution. Selected isolates were characterized by whole genome sequencing (WGS). From WGS data, spa, dru, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and SCCmec types, but also virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, were identified. Results: Fifty-six MRSA isolates were detected in 734 samples. They showed resistance to β-lactams (100%), tetracycline (60.7%), ciprofloxacin (33.9%), erythromycin (28.6%), gentamicin (32.1%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (10.7%). All 30 isolates investigated by WGS carried mecA, dfrG, and tet(38) genes. Other resistance genes detected were blaZ (83.3%), fosB (73.3%), tet(K) (60.0%), aacA-aphD (36.6%), aphA3 (33.3%), msr(A) (30.0%), mph(C) (30.0%), dfrS1 (3.3%), and sat4 (3.3%). Seven spa types (t091, t314, t657, t1476, t2331, t4690 and t12236), four known (dt9aw, dt10ao, dt10cj, and dt11a) and two novel (dt10dr and dt11dw) dru types, as well as five sequence types (ST8, ST121, ST152, ST772 and ST789) were found among the MRSA isolates. All ST121 isolates carried an SCCmec type IV cassette and were not dru-typeable. ST152 and ST121 were found only in specific sample categories within defined locations, while ST8 and ST772 were distributed across most sample categories and locations. Three SCCmec types, IVa, V and Vc, were identified. All MRSA isolates possessed virulence genes including aur, clpP, coa, fnbA, esaA, hly, hla, ica, isdA, srtB, sspA, and vWbp, among others. The toxic shock syndrome toxin gene (tst) was not detected in any isolate, whereas the Pantone–Valentine leukocidin genes lukF-PV/lukS-PV were present in all ST121, all ST772, and all but one ST152 isolates. Conclusion: The results of this study (i) showed that chicken meat is contaminated by MRSA and (ii) suggested that live bird markets may serve as focal points for the dissemination of MRSA within the community. View Full-Text
Keywords: CA-MRSA; multidrug resistance; Nigeria; resistance genes; sequence types; SCCmec; spa types; dru types; virulence genes CA-MRSA; multidrug resistance; Nigeria; resistance genes; sequence types; SCCmec; spa types; dru types; virulence genes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ogundipe, F.O.; Ojo, O.E.; Feßler, A.T.; Hanke, D.; Awoyomi, O.J.; Ojo, D.A.; Akintokun, A.K.; Schwarz, S.; Maurischat, S. Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Human, Chicken and Environmental Samples within Live Bird Markets in Three Nigerian Cities. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 588. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090588

AMA Style

Ogundipe FO, Ojo OE, Feßler AT, Hanke D, Awoyomi OJ, Ojo DA, Akintokun AK, Schwarz S, Maurischat S. Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Human, Chicken and Environmental Samples within Live Bird Markets in Three Nigerian Cities. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(9):588. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090588

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ogundipe, Flora O.; Ojo, Olufemi E.; Feßler, Andrea T.; Hanke, Dennis; Awoyomi, Olajoju J.; Ojo, David A.; Akintokun, Aderonke K.; Schwarz, Stefan; Maurischat, Sven. 2020. "Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Human, Chicken and Environmental Samples within Live Bird Markets in Three Nigerian Cities" Antibiotics 9, no. 9: 588. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090588

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