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Article

Substandard Quality of the Antimicrobials Sold in the Street Markets in Haiti

1
LABMES, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d’Etat d’Haïti, Port-au-Prince HT6110, Haiti
2
Groupe Haitien de Recherche, d’Innovation et de Créativité (GHRIC), Tabarre HT6124, Haiti
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
4
KBI Biopharma, Boulder, CO 80301, USA
5
Departament de Farmacologia, Terapèutica i Toxicologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08035 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2020, 9(7), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9070407
Received: 24 June 2020 / Revised: 10 July 2020 / Accepted: 11 July 2020 / Published: 14 July 2020
This pilot study was conducted to analyze the quality of the antimicrobials sold in the street markets in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. A total of 258 packs containing antimicrobials were bought in 28 street markets in Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Tablets and contents of capsules included in 196 packs were analyzed using a Raman handheld spectrometer (NanoRAM of BWTEK, Model: BWS456-785) during the first quarter of 2019. Three out of 11 antimicrobials (Amoxicillin, Metronidazole, and Cotrimoxazole) had a high spectral match with an HQI ≥ 90 to the respective authentic medicine for more than 95% of their tablets/capsules. For six antimicrobials (Tetracycline, Erythromycin, Cloxacillin, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, and the combination Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid) none of their tablets/capsules showed a sufficient spectral match with the authentic medicine. This finding indicates that these products sold in the markets did not contain the labeled drug and/or contained a degraded drug. In addition to the fact that prescription antimicrobials can be purchased in street markets, the present field study found that for most of them (including “Watch” antimicrobials according to the AWaRe classification) were substandard, which contributes to the present antimicrobials resistance epidemic. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmaceutical quality; antimicrobial resistance; substandard medicines; Haiti; street markets; AWaRe classification pharmaceutical quality; antimicrobial resistance; substandard medicines; Haiti; street markets; AWaRe classification
MDPI and ACS Style

Jean-Baptiste, T.; Carpenter, J.F.; Dahl, K.; Derameau, W.; Veillard, R.; Jacquet, J.R.; Osselyn, P.L.; Figueras, A. Substandard Quality of the Antimicrobials Sold in the Street Markets in Haiti. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 407. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9070407

AMA Style

Jean-Baptiste T, Carpenter JF, Dahl K, Derameau W, Veillard R, Jacquet JR, Osselyn PL, Figueras A. Substandard Quality of the Antimicrobials Sold in the Street Markets in Haiti. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(7):407. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9070407

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jean-Baptiste, Théodule, John F. Carpenter, Kevin Dahl, Wellington Derameau, Rosemela Veillard, John Redford Jacquet, Pierre Ludens Osselyn, and Albert Figueras. 2020. "Substandard Quality of the Antimicrobials Sold in the Street Markets in Haiti" Antibiotics 9, no. 7: 407. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9070407

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