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Article

The Pharmaceutical Ability of Pistacia lentiscus L. Leaves Essential Oil Against Periodontal Bacteria and Candida sp. and Its Anti-Inflammatory Potential

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Department of Medicine, Surgery and Experimental Science, University of Sassari, Viale San Pietro 43, 07100 Sassari, Italy
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Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sassari, Via Rolando, 07100 Sassari, Italy
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Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Akademika Heyrovského 1203, 50005 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
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Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Šimkova 870, 50003 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
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National Research Council-Institute of Sciences of Food Production, Traversa La Crucca 3, Loc. Baldinca, 07100 Sassari, Italy
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National Research Council-Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Traversa La Crucca 3, Loc. Baldinca, 07100 Sassari, Italy
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Dental Unite, Department of Surgery, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria, 07100 Sassari, Italy
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Department of Clinical and Translational Medicine, University of Rome, Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy
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Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sassari, Viale San Pietro 43/C, 07100 Sassari, Italy
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Institute of Experimental Botany, Czech Academy of Sciences, Rozvojová 263, 16502 Prague, Czech Republic
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Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse 7, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2020, 9(6), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9060281
Received: 30 April 2020 / Revised: 21 May 2020 / Accepted: 23 May 2020 / Published: 26 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Activity of Higher Plants)
Background: Given the increasing request for natural pharmacological molecules, this study assessed the antimicrobial capacity of Pistacia lentiscus L. essential oil (PLL-EO) obtained from the leaves of wild plants growing in North Sardinia (Italy) toward a wide range of periodontal bacteria and Candida, including laboratory and clinical isolates sp., together with its anti-inflammatory activity and safety. Methods: PLL-EO was screened by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The anti-inflammatory activity was measured by cyclooxygenase (COX-1/2) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition, while the antioxidant capacity was determined electro-chemically and by the MTT assay. The WST-1 assay was used to ascertain cytotoxicity toward four lines of oral cells. Results: According to the concentrations of terpens, PLL-EO is a pharmacologically-active phytocomplex. MICs against periodontal bacteria ranged between 3.13 and 12.5 µg/ml, while against Candida sp. they were between 6.25 and 12.5 µg/mL. Oxidation by COX-1/2 and LOX was inhibited by 80% and 20% µg/mL of the oil, respectively. Antioxidant activity seemed negligible, and no cytotoxicity arose. Conclusions: PLL-EO exhibits a broad-spectrum activity against periodontal bacteria and Candida, with an interesting dual inhibitory capacity toward COX-2 and LOX inflammatory enzymes, and without side effects against oral cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: oral health care products; cyclooxygenase; lipoxygenase; periodontal disease; Candida albicans; Candida glabrata; medicinal herbs oral health care products; cyclooxygenase; lipoxygenase; periodontal disease; Candida albicans; Candida glabrata; medicinal herbs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Milia, E.; Usai, M.; Szotáková, B.; Elstnerová, M.; Králová, V.; D’hallewin, G.; Spissu, Y.; Barberis, A.; Marchetti, M.; Bortone, A.; Campanella, V.; Mastandrea, G.; Langhansová, L.; Eick, S. The Pharmaceutical Ability of Pistacia lentiscus L. Leaves Essential Oil Against Periodontal Bacteria and Candida sp. and Its Anti-Inflammatory Potential. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 281. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9060281

AMA Style

Milia E, Usai M, Szotáková B, Elstnerová M, Králová V, D’hallewin G, Spissu Y, Barberis A, Marchetti M, Bortone A, Campanella V, Mastandrea G, Langhansová L, Eick S. The Pharmaceutical Ability of Pistacia lentiscus L. Leaves Essential Oil Against Periodontal Bacteria and Candida sp. and Its Anti-Inflammatory Potential. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(6):281. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9060281

Chicago/Turabian Style

Milia, Egle; Usai, Marianna; Szotáková, Barbora; Elstnerová, Marie; Králová, Věra; D’hallewin, Guy; Spissu, Ylenia; Barberis, Antonio; Marchetti, Mauro; Bortone, Antonella; Campanella, Vincenzo; Mastandrea, Giorgio; Langhansová, Lenka; Eick, Sigrun. 2020. "The Pharmaceutical Ability of Pistacia lentiscus L. Leaves Essential Oil Against Periodontal Bacteria and Candida sp. and Its Anti-Inflammatory Potential" Antibiotics 9, no. 6: 281. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9060281

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