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Article

Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus in Nepalese Primates: Resistance to Antimicrobials, Virulence, and Genetic Lineages

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Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
2
Nepalese Farming Institute, Maitidevi, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
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Leibniz Institute for Photonic Technologies Leibniz-IPHT), 07745 Jena, Germany
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InfectoGnostics Research Campus Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany
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Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Medical Faculty “Carl Gustav Carus”, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany
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Institute of Physical Chemistry, Friedrich-Schiller University, 07743 Jena, Germany
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PTC—Phage Technology Center GmbH, 59199 Bönen, Germany
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Central Department of Zoology, Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu 44613, Nepal
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Center for Postgraduate Studies, Nepal Engineering College, Pokhara University, Lalitpur 44800, Nepal
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Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
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Nepal Biodiversity Research Society and Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu 44613, Nepal
12
Washington National Primate Research Center, Center for Global Field Study, Departments of Psychology, Global Health, Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2020, 9(10), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9100689
Received: 11 September 2020 / Revised: 30 September 2020 / Accepted: 10 October 2020 / Published: 13 October 2020
Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous pathogen and colonizer in humans and animals. There are few studies on the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in wild monkeys and apes. S. aureus carriage in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and Assam macaques (Macaca assamensis) is a species that has not previously been sampled and lives in remote environments with limited human contact. Forty Staphylococcus aureus isolates including 33 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and seven methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were characterized. Thirty-four isolates were from rhesus macaques and six isolates (five MSSA, one MRSA) were from Assam macaques. Isolates were characterized using StaphyType DNA microarrays. Five of the MRSA including one from Assam macaque were CC22 MRSA-IV (PVL+/tst+), which is a strain previously identified in Nepalese rhesus. One MRSA each were CC6 MRSA-IV and CC772 MRSA-V (PVL+). One MSSA each belonged to CC15, CC96, and CC2990. Six MRSA isolates carried the blaZ, while ten known CC isolates (seven MRSA, three MSSA) carried a variety of genes including aacA-aphD, aphA3, erm(C), mph(C), dfrA, msrA, and/or sat genes. The other 30 MSSA isolates belonged to 17 novel clonal complexes, carried no antibiotic resistance genes, lacked Panton–Valentine Leukocidin (PVL), and most examined exotoxin genes. Four clonal complexes carried egc enterotoxin genes, and four harbored edinB, which is an exfoliative toxin homologue. View Full-Text
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; methicillin resistant S. aureus; antibiotic resistance genes; virulence factors; genetic lineages Staphylococcus aureus; methicillin resistant S. aureus; antibiotic resistance genes; virulence factors; genetic lineages
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MDPI and ACS Style

Roberts, M.C.; Joshi, P.R.; Monecke, S.; Ehricht, R.; Müller, E.; Gawlik, D.; Diezel, C.; Braun, S.D.; Paudel, S.; Acharya, M.; Khanal, L.; Koju, N.P.; Chalise, M.; Kyes, R.C. Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus in Nepalese Primates: Resistance to Antimicrobials, Virulence, and Genetic Lineages. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 689. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9100689

AMA Style

Roberts MC, Joshi PR, Monecke S, Ehricht R, Müller E, Gawlik D, Diezel C, Braun SD, Paudel S, Acharya M, Khanal L, Koju NP, Chalise M, Kyes RC. Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus in Nepalese Primates: Resistance to Antimicrobials, Virulence, and Genetic Lineages. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(10):689. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9100689

Chicago/Turabian Style

Roberts, Marilyn C., Prabhu R. Joshi, Stefan Monecke, Ralf Ehricht, Elke Müller, Darius Gawlik, Celia Diezel, Sascha D. Braun, Saroj Paudel, Mahesh Acharya, Laxman Khanal, Narayan P. Koju, Mukesh Chalise, and Randall C. Kyes 2020. "Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus in Nepalese Primates: Resistance to Antimicrobials, Virulence, and Genetic Lineages" Antibiotics 9, no. 10: 689. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9100689

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