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Brief Report

From Orphan Phage to a Proposed New Family–The Diversity of N4-Like Viruses

1
Leibniz Institute DSMZ–German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany
2
Department of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK
3
Department of Genetics and Genome Biology, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH UK
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Department of Biology, University of Tampa, Tampa, FL 33606, USA
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Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
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Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
7
Quadram Institute Bioscience, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UQ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2020, 9(10), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9100663
Received: 8 September 2020 / Revised: 28 September 2020 / Accepted: 29 September 2020 / Published: 30 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Diversity for Research and Application)
Escherichia phage N4 was isolated in 1966 in Italy and has remained a genomic orphan for a long time. It encodes an extremely large virion-associated RNA polymerase unique for bacterial viruses that became characteristic for this group. In recent years, due to new and relatively inexpensive sequencing techniques the number of publicly available phage genome sequences expanded rapidly. This revealed new members of the N4-like phage group, from 33 members in 2015 to 115 N4-like viruses in 2020. Using new technologies and methods for classification, the Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses Subcommittee of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) has moved the classification and taxonomy of bacterial viruses from mere morphological approaches to genomic and proteomic methods. The analysis of 115 N4-like genomes resulted in a huge reassessment of this group and the proposal of a new family “Schitoviridae”, including eight subfamilies and numerous new genera. View Full-Text
Keywords: N4; Schitoviridae; virus taxonomy; ICTV; bacteriophages; bacterial viruses N4; Schitoviridae; virus taxonomy; ICTV; bacteriophages; bacterial viruses
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wittmann, J.; Turner, D.; Millard, A.D.; Mahadevan, P.; Kropinski, A.M.; Adriaenssens, E.M. From Orphan Phage to a Proposed New Family–The Diversity of N4-Like Viruses. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 663. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9100663

AMA Style

Wittmann J, Turner D, Millard AD, Mahadevan P, Kropinski AM, Adriaenssens EM. From Orphan Phage to a Proposed New Family–The Diversity of N4-Like Viruses. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(10):663. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9100663

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wittmann, Johannes, Dann Turner, Andrew D. Millard, Padmanabhan Mahadevan, Andrew M. Kropinski, and Evelien M. Adriaenssens. 2020. "From Orphan Phage to a Proposed New Family–The Diversity of N4-Like Viruses" Antibiotics 9, no. 10: 663. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9100663

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