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Characterization of Antibiotic and Biocide Resistance Genes and Virulence Factors of Staphylococcus Species Associated with Bovine Mastitis in Rwanda

1
Institute of Microbiology, University of Veterinary Medicine, 1010 Vienna, Austria
2
New Vision Veterinary Hospital, Musanze, Rwanda
3
Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, 1010 Vienna, Austria
4
Institute of Microbiology and Epizootics, Centre for Infection Medicine, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, 10115 Berlin, Germany
5
Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), 07743 Jena, Germany
6
InfectoGnostics Research Campus, 07743 Jena, Germany
7
Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Technical University of Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany
8
Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry, 07743 Jena, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010001
Received: 28 November 2019 / Revised: 9 December 2019 / Accepted: 13 December 2019 / Published: 18 December 2019
The present study was conducted from July to August 2018 on milk samples taken at dairy farms in the Northern Province and Kigali District of Rwanda in order to identify Staphylococcus spp. associated with bovine intramammary infection. A total of 161 staphylococcal isolates originating from quarter milk samples of 112 crossbred dairy cattle were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and isolates were examined for the presence of various resistance genes. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were also analyzed for the presence of virulence factors, genotyped by spa typing and further phenotypically subtyped for capsule expression using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Selected S. aureus were characterized using DNA microarray technology, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and whole-genome sequencing. All mecA-positive staphylococci were further genotyped using dru typing. In total, 14 different staphylococcal species were detected, with S. aureus being most prevalent (26.7%), followed by S. xylosus (22.4%) and S. haemolyticus (14.9%). A high number of isolates was resistant to penicillin and tetracycline. Various antimicrobial and biocide resistance genes were detected. Among S. aureus, the Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes, as well as bovine leukocidin (LukM/LukF-P83) genes, were detected in two and three isolates, respectively, of which two also carried the toxic shock syndrome toxin gene tsst-1 bovine variant. t1236 was the predominant spa type. FTIR-based capsule serotyping revealed a high prevalence of non-encapsulated S. aureus isolates (89.5%). The majority of the selected S. aureus isolates belonged to clonal complex (CC) 97 which was determined using DNA microarray based assignment. Three new MLST sequence types were detected. View Full-Text
Keywords: Staphylococcus species; Staphylococcus aureus; bovine mastitis; antibiotic resistance; spa typing; FTIR spectroscopy; capsule serotyping; MLST; whole-genome sequencing; dru typing Staphylococcus species; Staphylococcus aureus; bovine mastitis; antibiotic resistance; spa typing; FTIR spectroscopy; capsule serotyping; MLST; whole-genome sequencing; dru typing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Antók, F.I.; Mayrhofer, R.; Marbach, H.; Masengesho, J.C.; Keinprecht, H.; Nyirimbuga, V.; Fischer, O.; Lepuschitz, S.; Ruppitsch, W.; Ehling-Schulz, M.; Feßler, A.T.; Schwarz, S.; Monecke, S.; Ehricht, R.; Grunert, T.; Spergser, J.; Loncaric, I. Characterization of Antibiotic and Biocide Resistance Genes and Virulence Factors of Staphylococcus Species Associated with Bovine Mastitis in Rwanda. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010001

AMA Style

Antók FI, Mayrhofer R, Marbach H, Masengesho JC, Keinprecht H, Nyirimbuga V, Fischer O, Lepuschitz S, Ruppitsch W, Ehling-Schulz M, Feßler AT, Schwarz S, Monecke S, Ehricht R, Grunert T, Spergser J, Loncaric I. Characterization of Antibiotic and Biocide Resistance Genes and Virulence Factors of Staphylococcus Species Associated with Bovine Mastitis in Rwanda. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(1):1. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010001

Chicago/Turabian Style

Antók, Fruzsina Irén, Rosa Mayrhofer, Helene Marbach, Jean Claude Masengesho, Helga Keinprecht, Vedaste Nyirimbuga, Otto Fischer, Sarah Lepuschitz, Werner Ruppitsch, Monika Ehling-Schulz, Andrea T. Feßler, Stefan Schwarz, Stefan Monecke, Ralf Ehricht, Tom Grunert, Joachim Spergser, and Igor Loncaric. 2020. "Characterization of Antibiotic and Biocide Resistance Genes and Virulence Factors of Staphylococcus Species Associated with Bovine Mastitis in Rwanda" Antibiotics 9, no. 1: 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010001

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