Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. After their discovery in the early 1900s, bacteriophages were a primary cure against infectious disease for almost 25 years, before being completely overshadowed by antibiotics. With the rise of antibiotic resistance, bacteriophages are being explored again for their antibacterial activity. One of the critical apprehensions regarding bacteriophage therapy, however, is the possibility of genome evolution, development of phage resistance, and subsequent perturbations to our microbiota. Through this review, we set out to explore the principles supporting the use of bacteriophages as a therapeutic agent, discuss the human gut microbiome in relation to the utilization of phage therapy, and the co-evolutionary arms race between host bacteria and phage in the context of the human microbiota.
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