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Antibiotics 2018, 7(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7040100

Silver Nanoparticle Conjugation-Enhanced Antibacterial Efficacy of Clinically Approved Drugs Cephradine and Vildagliptin

1
Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, Bandar Sunway 47500, Malaysia
2
HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 74600, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silver-Based Antimicrobials)
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Abstract

This paper sets out to determine whether silver nanoparticles conjugation enhance the antibacterial efficacy of clinically approved drugs. Silver conjugated Cephradine and Vildagliptin were synthesized and thoroughly characterized by ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic methods, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. Using antibacterial assays, the effects of drugs alone and drugs-conjugated with silver nanoparticles were tested against a variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Cytopathogenicity assays were performed to determine whether pretreatment of bacteria with drugs inhibit bacterial-mediated host cell cytotoxicity. The UV-vis spectra of both silver-drug nanoconjugates showed a characteristic surface plasmon resonance band in the range of 400–450 nm. AFM further confirmed the morphology of nanoparticles and revealed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with size distribution of 30–80 nm. FT-IR analysis demonstrated the involvement of Hydroxyl groups in both drugs in the stabilization of silver nanoparticles. Antibacterial assays showed that silver nanoparticle conjugation enhanced antibacterial potential of both Cephradine and Vildagliptin compared to the drugs alone. Pretreatment of bacteria with drugs inhibited E. coli K1-mediated host cell cytotoxicity. In summary, conjugation with silver nanoparticle enhanced antibacterial effects of clinically approved Cephradine. These findings suggest that modifying and/or repurposing clinically approved drugs using nanotechnology is a feasible approach in our search for effective antibacterial molecules. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cephradine; Vildagliptin; nanoparticles; antibacterial; nanotechnology Cephradine; Vildagliptin; nanoparticles; antibacterial; nanotechnology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Masri, A.; Anwar, A.; Ahmed, D.; Siddiqui, R.B.; Raza Shah, M.; Khan, N.A. Silver Nanoparticle Conjugation-Enhanced Antibacterial Efficacy of Clinically Approved Drugs Cephradine and Vildagliptin. Antibiotics 2018, 7, 100.

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