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Article

A Qualitative Study on the Design and Implementation of the National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance in the Philippines

1
College of Public Health, University of the Philippines Manila, 625 Pedro Gil St., Ermita, Manila 1000, Philippines
2
Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117549, Singapore
3
Alliance for Improving Health Outcomes, Inc., 62 West Avenue, Quezon City 1104, Philippines
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Nicholas Dixon and Seok Hoon Jeong
Antibiotics 2022, 11(6), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11060820
Received: 1 April 2022 / Revised: 13 June 2022 / Accepted: 14 June 2022 / Published: 17 June 2022
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health threat that warrants urgent attention. Countries developed their national action plans (NAPs) following the launch of the Global Action Plan on AMR in 2015. The development and implementation of NAPs are often complicated due to the multifaceted nature of AMR, and studies analyzing these aspects are lacking. We analyzed the development and implementation of the Philippine NAP on AMR with guidance from an AMR governance framework. We conducted in-depth interviews with 37 participants across the One Health spectrum. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and were analyzed thematically, adopting an interpretative approach. The enabling factors for NAP implementation include (1) a high level of governmental support and involvement of relevant stakeholders, (2) the development of policies to support improved responses in infection prevention and control and antimicrobial stewardship, and (3) better engagement and advocacy by professional associations and civil society groups. The challenges include (1) a lack of resources and regulatory capacity, (2) insufficient impetus for AMR research and surveillance, and (3) limited One Health engagement. Although there has been considerable progress for human health, strengthening the involvement and representation of the animal health and environment sectors in the AMR scene must be undertaken. Developing well-defined roles within policies will be paramount to the strong implementation of AMR strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; implementation plan; policy development; policy analysis; One Health; Philippines antimicrobial resistance; implementation plan; policy development; policy analysis; One Health; Philippines
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lota, M.M.M.; Chua, A.Q.; Azupardo, K.; Lumangaya, C.; Reyes, K.A.V.; Villanueva, S.Y.A.M.; Legido-Quigley, H.; Roxas, E.A. A Qualitative Study on the Design and Implementation of the National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance in the Philippines. Antibiotics 2022, 11, 820. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11060820

AMA Style

Lota MMM, Chua AQ, Azupardo K, Lumangaya C, Reyes KAV, Villanueva SYAM, Legido-Quigley H, Roxas EA. A Qualitative Study on the Design and Implementation of the National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance in the Philippines. Antibiotics. 2022; 11(6):820. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11060820

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lota, Maria Margarita M., Alvin Qijia Chua, Karen Azupardo, Carlo Lumangaya, Katherine Ann V. Reyes, Sharon Yvette Angelina M. Villanueva, Helena Legido-Quigley, and Evalyn A. Roxas. 2022. "A Qualitative Study on the Design and Implementation of the National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance in the Philippines" Antibiotics 11, no. 6: 820. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11060820

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