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The Bacterial Urban Resistome: Recent Advances

1
School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
2
Department of Natural Sciences, Middlesex University London, London NW4 4BT, UK
3
Department of Biology, University of Florence, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Albert Figueras
Antibiotics 2022, 11(4), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11040512
Received: 24 March 2022 / Revised: 7 April 2022 / Accepted: 8 April 2022 / Published: 12 April 2022
Cities that are densely populated are reservoirs of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs). The overall presence of all resistance genes in a specific environment is defined as a resistome. Spatial proximity of surfaces and different hygienic conditions leads to the transfer of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) within urban environments. Built environments, public transportation, green spaces, and citizens’ behaviors all support persistence and transfer of antimicrobial resistances (AMR). Various unique aspects of urban settings that promote spread and resilience of ARGs/ARB are discussed: (i) the role of hospitals and recreational parks as reservoirs; (ii) private and public transportation as carriers of ARGs/ARB; (iii) the role of built environments as a hub for horizontal gene transfer even though they support lower microbial biodiversity than outdoor environments; (iv) the need to employ ecological and evolutionary concepts, such as modeling the fate of a specific ARG/ARB, to gain enhanced health risk assessments. Our understanding and our ability to control the rise of AMR in an urban setting is linked to our knowledge of the network connecting urban reservoirs and the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial resistances; urban microbiome; hospitals; pet; recreational water; ARB; ARM; ARGs antimicrobial resistances; urban microbiome; hospitals; pet; recreational water; ARB; ARM; ARGs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vassallo, A.; Kett, S.; Purchase, D.; Marvasi, M. The Bacterial Urban Resistome: Recent Advances. Antibiotics 2022, 11, 512. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11040512

AMA Style

Vassallo A, Kett S, Purchase D, Marvasi M. The Bacterial Urban Resistome: Recent Advances. Antibiotics. 2022; 11(4):512. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11040512

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vassallo, Alberto, Steve Kett, Diane Purchase, and Massimiliano Marvasi. 2022. "The Bacterial Urban Resistome: Recent Advances" Antibiotics 11, no. 4: 512. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11040512

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