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Article

Antimicrobial Resistance and Community Pharmacists’ Perspective in Thailand: A Mixed Methods Survey Using Appreciative Inquiry Theory

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Joseph Banks Laboratories, School of Pharmacy, University of Lincoln, Beevor St., Lincoln LN6 7DL, UK
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Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ubon Ratchathani University, Warin Chamrab, Ubon Ratchathani 34190, Thailand
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School of Health and Social Care, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln LN6 7TS, UK
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Lincoln Medical School, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln LN6 7TS, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Seok Hoon Jeong
Antibiotics 2022, 11(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11020161
Received: 7 January 2022 / Revised: 21 January 2022 / Accepted: 25 January 2022 / Published: 27 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance: Primary Care Perspectives and Practices)
Global action plans to tackle antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are the subject of ongoing discussion between experts. Community pharmacists have a professional responsibility to tackle AMR. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of antibiotic resistance and attitudes to promoting Antibiotic Smart Use (ASU) amongst part and full-time practicing community pharmacists across Thailand. An online mixed-method survey applying Appreciative Inquiry theory was validated and conducted in 2020. Non-probability sampling was used, with online survey dissemination via social networks. A total of 387 community pharmacists located in 59 out 77 provinces seemed knowledgeable about antimicrobial resistance (mean score = 82.69%) and had acceptable attitudes towards antibiotic prescribing practices and antimicrobial stewardship (mean score = 73.12%). Less than 13% of pharmacists had postgraduate degrees. Postgraduate education, training clerkship, preceptors, and antibiotic stewardship training positively affected their attitudes. The community pharmacists proposed solutions based on the Appreciative Inquiry theory to promote ASU practices. Among these were educational programmes consisting of professional conduct, social responsibility and business administration knowledge, up-to-date legislation, and substitutional strategies to compensate business income losses. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic smart use programme; antibiotic stewardship; antimicrobial resistance; Appreciative Inquiry; community pharmacist; mixed method survey; Thailand antibiotic smart use programme; antibiotic stewardship; antimicrobial resistance; Appreciative Inquiry; community pharmacist; mixed method survey; Thailand
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MDPI and ACS Style

Netthong, R.; Kane, R.; Ahmadi, K. Antimicrobial Resistance and Community Pharmacists’ Perspective in Thailand: A Mixed Methods Survey Using Appreciative Inquiry Theory. Antibiotics 2022, 11, 161. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11020161

AMA Style

Netthong R, Kane R, Ahmadi K. Antimicrobial Resistance and Community Pharmacists’ Perspective in Thailand: A Mixed Methods Survey Using Appreciative Inquiry Theory. Antibiotics. 2022; 11(2):161. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11020161

Chicago/Turabian Style

Netthong, Rojjares, Ros Kane, and Keivan Ahmadi. 2022. "Antimicrobial Resistance and Community Pharmacists’ Perspective in Thailand: A Mixed Methods Survey Using Appreciative Inquiry Theory" Antibiotics 11, no. 2: 161. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11020161

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