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Article

Surveillance of Antibacterial Usage during the COVID-19 Pandemic in England, 2020

1
Healthcare-Associated Infection and Antimicrobial Resistance Division, Public Health England, London NW9 5EQ, UK
2
National Institute for Health Research, Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
3
National Institute for Health Research, Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, UK
4
NHS England and NHS Improvement, London SE1 6LH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The AMU COVID-19 Stakeholder Group members are listed in the acknowledgements.
Academic Editor: Albert Figueras
Antibiotics 2021, 10(7), 841; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10070841
Received: 27 April 2021 / Revised: 19 May 2021 / Accepted: 8 July 2021 / Published: 10 July 2021
Changes in antibacterial prescribing during the COVID-19 pandemic were anticipated given that the clinical features of severe respiratory infection syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2 mirror bacterial respiratory tract infections. Antibacterial consumption was measured in items/1000 population for primary care and in Defined Daily Doses (DDDs)/1000 admissions for secondary care in England from 2015 to October 2020. Interrupted time-series analyses were conducted to evaluate the effects of the pandemic on antibacterial consumption. In the community, the rate of antibacterial items prescribed decreased further in 2020 (by an extra 1.4% per month, 95% CI: −2.3 to −0.5) compared to before COVID-19. In hospitals, the volume of antibacterial use decreased during COVID-19 overall (−12.1% compared to pre-COVID, 95% CI: −19.1 to −4.4), although the rate of usage in hospitals increased steeply in April 2020. Use of antibacterials prescribed for respiratory infections and broad-spectrum antibacterials (predominately ‘Watch’ antibacterials in hospitals) increased in both settings. Overall volumes of antibacterial use at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic decreased in both primary and secondary settings, although there were increases in the rate of usage in hospitals in April 2020 and in specific antibacterials. This highlights the importance of antimicrobial stewardship during pandemics to ensure appropriate prescribing and avoid negative consequences on patient outcomes and antimicrobial resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibacterials; antibiotics; COVID-19; antimicrobial stewardship antibacterials; antibiotics; COVID-19; antimicrobial stewardship
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MDPI and ACS Style

Andrews, A.; Budd, E.L.; Hendrick, A.; Ashiru-Oredope, D.; Beech, E.; Hopkins, S.; Gerver, S.; Muller-Pebody, B.; the AMU COVID-19 Stakeholder Group. Surveillance of Antibacterial Usage during the COVID-19 Pandemic in England, 2020. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 841. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10070841

AMA Style

Andrews A, Budd EL, Hendrick A, Ashiru-Oredope D, Beech E, Hopkins S, Gerver S, Muller-Pebody B, the AMU COVID-19 Stakeholder Group. Surveillance of Antibacterial Usage during the COVID-19 Pandemic in England, 2020. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(7):841. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10070841

Chicago/Turabian Style

Andrews, Amelia, Emma L. Budd, Aoife Hendrick, Diane Ashiru-Oredope, Elizabeth Beech, Susan Hopkins, Sarah Gerver, Berit Muller-Pebody, and the AMU COVID-19 Stakeholder Group. 2021. "Surveillance of Antibacterial Usage during the COVID-19 Pandemic in England, 2020" Antibiotics 10, no. 7: 841. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10070841

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