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Article

Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Cytotoxic Activities of Juglans regia L. Pellicle Extract

1
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Section of Biochemistry, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
2
Department of Human Sciences and Quality of Life Promotion, San Raffaele Roma Open University, 00166 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Drug and Health Sciences, Section of Biochemistry, University of Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy
4
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Section of Microbiology, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
5
Nacture S.r.l, Spin-off University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
6
Institute of Crystallography, National Research Council (CNR), 95126 Catania, Italy
7
Department of Drug and Health Sciences, Section of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: William N. Setzer
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10020159
Received: 18 January 2021 / Revised: 1 February 2021 / Accepted: 2 February 2021 / Published: 4 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Application of Plant Antimicrobial Substance)
The difficulty to treat resistant strains-related hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) promoted the study of phytoextracts, known sources of bioactive molecules. Accordingly, in the present study, the pharmacological activities of Juglans regia (L.) pellicle extract (WPE) were investigated. The antiviral effect was tested against Herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, Poliovirus 1, Adenovirus 2, Echovirus 9, Coxsackievirus B1 through the plaque reduction assay. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated against medically important strains, by the microdilution method. DPPH and superoxide dismutase (SOD)s-like activity assays were used to determine the antioxidant effect. Besides, the extract was screened for cytotoxicity on Caco-2, MCF-7, and HFF1 cell lines by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also evaluated. Interestingly, WPE inhibited Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) replication, bacterial and fungal growth. WPE showed free radical scavenging capacity and inhibited superoxide anion formation in a dose-dependent manner. These effects could be attributed to the high content of phenols and flavonoids, which were 0.377 ± 0.01 mg GE/g and 0.292 ± 0.08 mg CE/g, respectively. Moreover, WPE was able to reduce Caco-2 cell viability, at both 48 h and 72 h. The promising results encourage further studies aimed to better elucidate the role of WPE in the prevention of human infectious diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: antiviral; antibacterial; antifungal; DPPH; SOD-like; antitumor; polyphenols antiviral; antibacterial; antifungal; DPPH; SOD-like; antitumor; polyphenols
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MDPI and ACS Style

D’Angeli, F.; Malfa, G.A.; Garozzo, A.; Li Volti, G.; Genovese, C.; Stivala, A.; Nicolosi, D.; Attanasio, F.; Bellia, F.; Ronsisvalle, S.; Acquaviva, R. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Cytotoxic Activities of Juglans regia L. Pellicle Extract. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 159. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10020159

AMA Style

D’Angeli F, Malfa GA, Garozzo A, Li Volti G, Genovese C, Stivala A, Nicolosi D, Attanasio F, Bellia F, Ronsisvalle S, Acquaviva R. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Cytotoxic Activities of Juglans regia L. Pellicle Extract. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(2):159. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10020159

Chicago/Turabian Style

D’Angeli, Floriana, Giuseppe A. Malfa, Adriana Garozzo, Giovanni Li Volti, Carlo Genovese, Aldo Stivala, Daria Nicolosi, Francesco Attanasio, Francesco Bellia, Simone Ronsisvalle, and Rosaria Acquaviva. 2021. "Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Cytotoxic Activities of Juglans regia L. Pellicle Extract" Antibiotics 10, no. 2: 159. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10020159

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