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Open AccessReview

Polarization Induced Electro-Functionalization of Pore Walls: A Contactless Technology

1
Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, CNRS, IRIG, SyMMES, F-38000 Grenoble, France
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LAAS-CNRS, Université de Toulouse, 31400 Toulouse, France
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Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ, UK
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Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 38000 Grenoble, France
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CEA/DRF/IRIG, Centre de Thérapie Cellulaire, Hôpital Saint-Louis, F-75010 Paris, France
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Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Grenoble Alpes University/INSERM U1209/CNRS UMR5309, 38700 La Tronche, France
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University Bordeaux, CNRS, Bordeaux INP, ISM, UMR 5255, F-33400 Talence, France
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Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, INSERM, IRIG, BGE, F-38000 Grenoble, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biosensors 2019, 9(4), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9040121
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 19 September 2019 / Accepted: 27 September 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
This review summarizes recent advances in micro- and nanopore technologies with a focus on the functionalization of pores using a promising method named contactless electro-functionalization (CLEF). CLEF enables the localized grafting of electroactive entities onto the inner wall of a micro- or nano-sized pore in a solid-state silicon/silicon oxide membrane. A voltage or electrical current applied across the pore induces the surface functionalization by electroactive entities exclusively on the inside pore wall, which is a significant improvement over existing methods. CLEF’s mechanism is based on the polarization of a sandwich-like silicon/silicon oxide membrane, creating electronic pathways between the core silicon and the electrolyte. Correlation between numerical simulations and experiments have validated this hypothesis. CLEF-induced micro- and nanopores functionalized with antibodies or oligonucleotides were successfully used for the detection and identification of cells and are promising sensitive biosensors. This technology could soon be successfully applied to planar configurations of pores, such as restrictions in microfluidic channels. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanopore; micropore; CLEF; biosensing; electro-functionalization; contactless nanopore; micropore; CLEF; biosensing; electro-functionalization; contactless
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Bouchet-Spinelli, A.; Descamps, E.; Liu, J.; Ismail, A.; Pham, P.; Chatelain, F.; Leïchlé, T.; Leroy, L.; Marche, P.N.; Raillon, C.; Roget, A.; Roupioz, Y.; Sojic, N.; Buhot, A.; Haguet, V.; Livache, T.; Mailley, P. Polarization Induced Electro-Functionalization of Pore Walls: A Contactless Technology. Biosensors 2019, 9, 121.

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