Prior to the widespread use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), knowledge of the effects of exercise in type 1 diabetes (T1D) was limited to the exercise period, with few studies having the budget or capacity to monitor participants overnight. Recently, CGM has become a staple of many exercise studies, allowing researchers to observe the otherwise elusive late post-exercise period. We performed a strategic search using PubMed and Academic Search Complete. Studies were included if they involved adults with T1D performing exercise or physical activity, had a sample size greater than 5, and involved the use of CGM. Upon completion of the search protocol, 26 articles were reviewed for inclusion. While outcomes have been variable, CGM use in exercise studies has allowed the assessment of post-exercise (especially nocturnal) trends for different exercise modalities in individuals with T1D. Sensor accuracy is currently considered adequate for exercise, which has been crucial to developing closed-loop and artificial pancreas systems. Until these systems are perfected, CGM continues to provide information about late post-exercise responses, to assist T1D patients in managing their glucose, and to be useful as a tool for teaching individuals with T1D about exercise.
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