Next Article in Journal
Wrist Pulse Rate Monitor Using Self-Injection-Locked Radar Technology
Previous Article in Journal
Kinetics of Antibody Binding to Membranes of Living Bacteria Measured by a Photonic Crystal-Based Biosensor
Previous Article in Special Issue
Computational Assessment of Neural Probe and Brain Tissue Interface under Transient Motion
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Biosensors 2016, 6(4), 53;

Biofouling-Resistant Impedimetric Sensor for Array High-Resolution Extracellular Potassium Monitoring in the Brain

Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H6, Canada
Toronto Western Research Institute, Fundamental Neurobiology Division, 60 Leonard Avenue, Toronto, ON M5T 2S8, Canada
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King’s College Road, Toronto, ON M5S 3G4, Canada
Institute of Biomaterials & Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 164 College Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3G9, Canada
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hargsoon Yoon
Received: 16 July 2016 / Revised: 28 September 2016 / Accepted: 30 September 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neural Sensing and Interfacing Technology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2312 KB, uploaded 13 October 2016]   |  


Extracellular potassium concentration, [K+]o, plays a fundamental role in the physiological functions of the brain. Studies investigating changes in [K+]o have predominantly relied upon glass capillary electrodes with K+-sensitive solution gradients for their measurements. However, such electrodes are unsuitable for taking spatio-temporal measurements and are limited by the surface area of their tips. We illustrate seizures invoked chemically and in optogenetically modified mice using blue light exposure while impedimetrically measuring the response. A sharp decrease of 1–2 mM in [K+]o before each spike has shown new physiological events not witnessed previously when measuring extracellular potassium concentrations during seizures in mice. We propose a novel approach that uses multichannel monolayer coated gold microelectrodes for in vivo spatio-temporal measurements of [K+]o in a mouse brain as an improvement to the conventional glass capillary electrode. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosensor; electrodes; potassium; anti-fouling; seizure; impedance biosensor; electrodes; potassium; anti-fouling; seizure; impedance

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Machado, R.; Soltani, N.; Dufour, S.; Salam, M.T.; Carlen, P.L.; Genov, R.; Thompson, M. Biofouling-Resistant Impedimetric Sensor for Array High-Resolution Extracellular Potassium Monitoring in the Brain. Biosensors 2016, 6, 53.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Biosensors EISSN 2079-6374 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top