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Open AccessArticle

Biofouling-Resistant Impedimetric Sensor for Array High-Resolution Extracellular Potassium Monitoring in the Brain

Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H6, Canada
Toronto Western Research Institute, Fundamental Neurobiology Division, 60 Leonard Avenue, Toronto, ON M5T 2S8, Canada
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King’s College Road, Toronto, ON M5S 3G4, Canada
Institute of Biomaterials & Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 164 College Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3G9, Canada
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hargsoon Yoon
Biosensors 2016, 6(4), 53;
Received: 16 July 2016 / Revised: 28 September 2016 / Accepted: 30 September 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neural Sensing and Interfacing Technology)
Extracellular potassium concentration, [K+]o, plays a fundamental role in the physiological functions of the brain. Studies investigating changes in [K+]o have predominantly relied upon glass capillary electrodes with K+-sensitive solution gradients for their measurements. However, such electrodes are unsuitable for taking spatio-temporal measurements and are limited by the surface area of their tips. We illustrate seizures invoked chemically and in optogenetically modified mice using blue light exposure while impedimetrically measuring the response. A sharp decrease of 1–2 mM in [K+]o before each spike has shown new physiological events not witnessed previously when measuring extracellular potassium concentrations during seizures in mice. We propose a novel approach that uses multichannel monolayer coated gold microelectrodes for in vivo spatio-temporal measurements of [K+]o in a mouse brain as an improvement to the conventional glass capillary electrode. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosensor; electrodes; potassium; anti-fouling; seizure; impedance biosensor; electrodes; potassium; anti-fouling; seizure; impedance
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Machado, R.; Soltani, N.; Dufour, S.; Salam, M.T.; Carlen, P.L.; Genov, R.; Thompson, M. Biofouling-Resistant Impedimetric Sensor for Array High-Resolution Extracellular Potassium Monitoring in the Brain. Biosensors 2016, 6, 53.

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